The anti-mutagenic and antioxidant effects of bile pigments in the Ames Salmonella test

Bulmer, Andrew C. and Ried, K. and Coombes, Jeff S. and Blanchfield, Joanne T. and Toth, Istvan and Wagner, Karl-Heinz (2007) The anti-mutagenic and antioxidant effects of bile pigments in the Ames Salmonella test. Mutation Research - Reviews, 629. pp. 122-132. ISSN 1383-5742


The aim of this study was to explore the potential pro- and anti-mutagenic effects of endogenous bile pigments unconjugated bilirubin (BR), biliverdin (BV) and a synthetic, water soluble conjugate, bilirubin ditaurate (BRT) in the Ames Salmonella test.
The bile pigments were tested over a wide concentration range (0.01–2 !mol/plate) in the presence of three bacterial strains (TA98,TA100, TA102). A variety of mutagens including benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[']P), 2,4,7 trinitrofluorenone (TNFone), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), sodium azide (NaN3) and tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH), were used to promote the formation of mutant revertants.
Tests were conducted with (B[']P, 2-AF, t-BuOOH) and without (TNFone, NaN3, t-BuOOH) metabolic activation incorporating the addition of the microsomal liver preparation, S9. The bile pigments alone did not induce mutagenicity in any of the strains tested (p > 0.05). Anti-mutagenic effects of the bile pigments were observed in the presence of all mutagens except for
NaN3 and the anti-mutagenic effects appeared independent of the strain tested. For TNFone induced genotoxicity, the order of effectiveness was BR> or equal to BRT >BV. However, the order was BR> or equal to BRT > or equal to BV. for 2-AF. Antioxidant testing in the TA102 strain
revealed bile pigments could effectively inhibit the genotoxic effect of t-BuOOH induced oxidative stress. The apparent antioxidant and anti-mutagenic behaviour of bile pigments further suggests their presence in biological systems is of possible physiological importance.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Author version not held.
Faculty / Department / School: Historic - Faculty of Sciences - Department of Biological and Physical Sciences
Date Deposited: 05 May 2010 12:33
Last Modified: 02 Jul 2013 23:52
Uncontrolled Keywords: bile pigments; bilirubin; biliverdin; bilirubin ditaurate; Antioxidant; antimutagen; Ames test; salmonella
Fields of Research : 11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1106 Human Movement and Sports Science > 110602 Exercise Physiology
Socio-Economic Objective: E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
Identification Number or DOI: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2007.01.008

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