Management of treated pulp and paper mill effluent to achieve zero discharge

Asghar, Muhammad Nadeem and Khan, Shahbaz and Mushtaq, Shahbaz (2008) Management of treated pulp and paper mill effluent to achieve zero discharge. Journal of Environmental Management, 88 (4). pp. 1285-1299. ISSN 0301-4797


Pulp and paper mills are one of the major effluent generating industries in the world. In most cases, mill effluent (treated or raw) is discharged back into a river, creek, stream or other water body; resulting in negative environmental impacts, as well as social concerns,
among the downstream users. Pulp and paper mill effluent management, which could result in zero discharge into downstream water bodies, would present the best management option to address socio-environmental concerns. This paper presents such an effort aimed at closing the water cycle by using treated effluent from the mill to irrigate forage and fodder crops for producing animals feed. The treated
effluent is delivered from the mill through gravity into a winter storage dam of 490ML capacity. For irrigation applications on 110 ha of farmland, which is 42% of the total farmland, the water is pumped from the winter storage dam to five individual paddocks with Centre Pivot (CP) irrigators and one rectangular paddock with a Soft Hose Travelling (SHT) irrigator. From October 2001 to June 2006, a total of 2651mm of wastewater was applied at the farm. The impact assessment results, obtained from field monitoring, investigations and analysis, indicated that the closed water cycle effluent management strategy described had resulted in a lessening of the impact on water
resources usually associated with paper mills. However, social attitudes to the use of crops that have been irrigated with recycled waters and the resulting impact on market value of the produce may still be a major consideration.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. Published version deposited in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - USQ Other
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - USQ Other
Date Deposited: 22 Apr 2010 10:26
Last Modified: 08 Sep 2014 06:08
Uncontrolled Keywords: paper mill; effluent reuse; zero discharge; stream flows; groundwater pollution; closed water cycle; soil contamination; irrigation
Fields of Research (2008): 05 Environmental Sciences > 0502 Environmental Science and Management > 050209 Natural Resource Management
05 Environmental Sciences > 0502 Environmental Science and Management > 050205 Environmental Management
09 Engineering > 0907 Environmental Engineering > 090703 Environmental Technologies
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): D Environment > 96 Environment > 9605 Ecosystem Assessment and Management > 960511 Ecosystem Assessment and Management of Urban and Industrial Environments
D Environment > 96 Environment > 9609 Land and Water Management > 960999 Land and Water Management of Environments not elsewhere classified
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