Internal solitons in the ocean and their effect on underwater sound

Apel, John R. and Ostrovsky, Lev A. and Stepanyants, Yury A. and Lynch, James F. (2007) Internal solitons in the ocean and their effect on underwater sound. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 121 (2). pp. 695-722. ISSN 0001-4966


Nonlinear internal waves in the ocean are discussed (a) from the standpoint of soliton theory and (b) from the viewpoint of experimental measurements. First, theoretical models for internal solitary waves in the ocean are briefly described. Various nonlinear analytical solutions are treated, commencing with the well-known Boussinesq and Korteweg–de Vries equations. Then certain generalizations are considered, including effects of cubic nonlinearity, Earth's rotation, cylindrical divergence, dissipation, shear flows, and others. Recent theoretical models for strongly nonlinear internal waves are outlined. Second, examples of experimental evidence for the existence of solitons in the upper ocean are presented; the data include radar and optical images and in situ measurements of wave forms, propagation speeds, and dispersion characteristics. Third, and finally, action of internal solitons on sound wave propagation is discussed. This review paper is intended for researchers from diverse backgrounds, including acousticians, who may not be familiar in detail with soliton theory. Thus, it includes an outline of the basics of soliton theory. At the same time, recent theoretical and observational results are described which can also make this review useful for mainstream oceanographers and theoreticians.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Author's version unavailable.
Faculty / Department / School: Historic - Faculty of Sciences - Department of Maths and Computing
Date Deposited: 08 Dec 2009 10:24
Last Modified: 02 Jul 2013 23:24
Uncontrolled Keywords: Korteweg-de Vries equation; underwater acoustic propagation; solitons; ocean waves
Fields of Research : 01 Mathematical Sciences > 0101 Pure Mathematics > 010109 Ordinary Differential Equations, Difference Equations and Dynamical Systems
04 Earth Sciences > 0405 Oceanography > 040503 Physical Oceanography
02 Physical Sciences > 0203 Classical Physics > 020301 Acoustics and Acoustical Devices; Waves
Socio-Economic Objective: E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970104 Expanding Knowledge in the Earth Sciences
Identification Number or DOI: 10.1121/1.2395914

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