For Exercise, Relaxation, or Spirituality: Exploring Participation Motives and Conformity to Masculine Norms among Male and Female Yoga Participants

Cagas, Jonathan Y. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0233-4023 and Biddle, Stuart J. H ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7663-6895 and Vergeer, Ineke ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6560-9023 (2022) For Exercise, Relaxation, or Spirituality: Exploring Participation Motives and Conformity to Masculine Norms among Male and Female Yoga Participants. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19 (2):770. pp. 1-18. ISSN 1661-7827

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Abstract

Yoga is a traditional practice from India with the potential to promote physical activity and health. Participation worldwide remains low, particularly among men. To better understand yoga participation parameters, with a special focus on what influences male participation, this study examined gender differences in participation motives and conformity to masculine norms. It also explored these factors across three participant subgroups who differed in their engagement with the physical and the more psycho-spiritual aspects of yoga. A total of 546 yoga participants (138 males, 399 females, 9 others), 18–73 years old, completed an online survey that included an adapted version of the Exercise Motivation Inventory–2 and three subscales from the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory–46. Results showed significant gender differences in participation motives and conformity to masculine norms. Females were more motivated by positive affect, health/fitness, nimbleness, Mind–Body integration, and coping/stress management, whereas males were more motivated by supplementary activity and competition/social recognition. These differences should be considered in tailoring messages to promote uptake and continued participation. Furthermore, males were more likely than females to conform to emotional control and heterosexual self-presentation masculine norms. Future research may examine how differences in masculine norm adherence influences uptake, particularly among men.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Resilient Regions - Centre for Health Research (1 Apr 2020 -)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Resilient Regions - Centre for Health Research (1 Apr 2020 -)
Date Deposited: 18 Jul 2022 23:59
Last Modified: 10 Oct 2022 02:00
Uncontrolled Keywords: participation motives; yoga; gender differences; holistic movement practice; masculine norms
Fields of Research (2020): 52 PSYCHOLOGY > 5203 Clinical and health psychology > 520304 Health psychology
42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4207 Sports science and exercise > 420799 Sports science and exercise not elsewhere classified
Socio-Economic Objectives (2020): 20 HEALTH > 2004 Public health (excl. specific population health) > 200401 Behaviour and health
Identification Number or DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020770
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/49944

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