The Macrobrachiumrosenbergii nodavirus: a detailed review of structure, infectivity, host immunity, diagnosis and prevention

Chen, Ken Fong and Tan, Wen Siang and Ong, Lin Kooi ORCID: and Abidin, Syafiq Asnawi Zainal and Othman, Iekhsan and Tey, Beng Ti and Lee, Ronald Fook Seng (2021) The Macrobrachiumrosenbergii nodavirus: a detailed review of structure, infectivity, host immunity, diagnosis and prevention. Reviews in Aquaculture, 13 (4). pp. 2117-2141. ISSN 1753-5131


The Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus causes white tail disease, which primarily infects giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The infection leads to almost 100% mortality in post-larvae, causing significant economic losses in aquaculture farms. To develop effective measures against outbreaks, a good understanding of the virus is essential. In this review, we discuss key aspects of the Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus including its structure, mechanisms of transmission and infection and common strategies for detection and prevention of outbreaks. Structurally, cryogenic electron microscopy revealed that the nodavirus has a T = 3 icosahedral structure with dimeric blade-like spikes on its surface. Homology modelling comparing wild-type and enzymatically cleaved Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus-like particles revealed the significance of these spikes or protruding domains for binding. In vitro and in vivo studies have identified key aspects of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus infectivity, including (i) the viral binding targets such as transglutaminase and caveolin-1, (ii) utilisation of B2-like proteins in promoting infectivity and intracellular migration, (iii) replication mechanisms and (iv) co-infection with the extra small virus. Though susceptible at a post-larvae stage, adult Macrobrachium rosenbergii is immune to Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus infection. During outbreaks, polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridisation-based detection techniques are commonly used to identify infected populations. Currently, the most useful strategies for an outbreak are physical biosecurity measures and prophylaxis such as vaccination and immunostimulants. Finally, critical gaps in research include development of immortalised shrimp cell models, elucidation of time-resolved protein changes post-infection and development of therapies to treat infections to mitigate economic losses during outbreaks.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Files associated with this item cannot be displayed due to copyright restrictions.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: No Faculty
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: No Faculty
Date Deposited: 10 Jun 2022 00:41
Last Modified: 13 Jun 2022 01:34
Uncontrolled Keywords: aquaculture; giant freshwater prawn; Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus; mechanism of infection; viral structure; white tail disease
Fields of Research (2020): 30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3005 Fisheries sciences > 300501 Aquaculture
Socio-Economic Objectives (2020): 10 ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND ANIMAL PRIMARY PRODUCTS > 1002 Fisheries - aquaculture > 100201 Aquaculture crustaceans (excl. rock lobster and prawns)
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