Manifestations of Cognitive Presence in Blended Learning Classes of the Philippine K–12 System

Villanueva, Juliet Aleta R. and Redmond, Petrea ORCID: and Galligan, Linda ORCID: (2022) Manifestations of Cognitive Presence in Blended Learning Classes of the Philippine K–12 System. Online Learning Journal, 26 (1). pp. 19-37. ISSN 2472-5749

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Through an exploratory case study, this research sought to determine the applicability of the Community of Inquiry in the K–12 setting. There are research gaps to leverage support for blended learning and flexible learning options to benefit Filipino youth and school-leavers under the Alternative Delivery Mode of the Philippine K–12 system. This study was driven by the following research questions: How is cognitive presence manifested in the blended learning interactions? In what ways do the interactions of cognitive presence with the other presences characterize learning community building? Three blended learning classes were examined based on data collected through surveys, student focus group discussions, teacher interviews, class observations and archived data. Through constant comparison analysis and descriptive statistics, evidence revealed cognitive presence across its categories in the form of connectedness, collaborative work, trust and reciprocation, and shared views on technology by K–12 teachers and learners. The analysis affirmed 'regulating learning' as the intersection of cognitive presence and teaching presence. Implications for practice and recommendations for further research are discussed through the study's proposed modifications on the cognitive presence categories, indicators, and the survey instrument for the K–12 setting where teacher-directed pedagogies or collaborative inquiry processes have not been thoroughly co-opted.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Faculty of Business, Education, Law and Arts - School of Education (1 Jul 2019 -)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current – Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Mathematics, Physics and Computing (1 Jan 2022 -)
Date Deposited: 28 Mar 2022 02:03
Last Modified: 28 Mar 2022 02:03
Uncontrolled Keywords: Blended learning; Cognitive presence; Community of Inquiry; K–12 Philippines; Selfregulation; Shared metacognition
Fields of Research (2020): 39 EDUCATION > 3904 Specialist studies in education > 390405 Educational technology and computing
39 EDUCATION > 3903 Education systems > 390306 Secondary education
Socio-Economic Objectives (2020): 16 EDUCATION AND TRAINING > 1601 Learner and learning > 160105 Secondary education
16 EDUCATION AND TRAINING > 1603 Teaching and curriculum > 160303 Teacher and instructor development
16 EDUCATION AND TRAINING > 1603 Teaching and curriculum > 160304 Teaching and instruction technologies
Identification Number or DOI: doi:10.24059/olj.v26i1.3021

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