Phytotoxicity of Class B aqueous firefighting formulations, Tridol S 3 and 6% to Lemna minor

Logeshwaran, Panneerselvan and Sivaram, Anithadevi Kenday and Yadav, Meena and Chadalavada, Sreenivasulu ORCID: and Naidu, Ravi and Mallavarapu, Megharaj (2020) Phytotoxicity of Class B aqueous firefighting formulations, Tridol S 3 and 6% to Lemna minor. Environmental Technology and Innovation, 18:100688. pp. 1-11.

Text (Published Version)

Download (1MB) | Preview


Phytotoxicity of Class B aqueous firefighting concentrates, Tridol-S 3%, and Tridol-S 6% to Lemna minor were studied using the parameters such as the frond number, biomass production in terms of dry weight, chlorophyll content and proline accumulation. Decrease in fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll pigments; increase in proline content suggested that both the firefighting concentrates are potentially toxic to L. minor. Relative growth rate (RGR) also showed a similar pattern of toxicity with the corresponding increase in test concentrations of both the compounds. The EC50 values show Tridol-S 3% was more toxic than Tridol-S 6% in terms of frond number and dry weight. From our findings, it is clear that L. minor is highly sensitive to the exposure of firefighting foams, and is suitable for its use as an indicator organism for assessing the aquatic toxicity of aqueous firefighting foams. This study clearly suggests that the migration of Tridol AFFF into aquatic environments is likely to have detrimental effects on the aquatic flora. To the best of our knowledge, this study constitutes the first report on the phytotoxicity of firefighting concentrates, Tridol-S 3% and Tridol-S 6% to Lemna minor L.

Statistics for USQ ePrint 47325
Statistics for this ePrint Item
Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: No Faculty
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: No Faculty
Date Deposited: 07 Mar 2022 00:02
Last Modified: 26 Jul 2022 03:39
Uncontrolled Keywords: AFFF; Firefighting foam; Growth inhibition; Lemna; Phytotoxicity; Tridol
Fields of Research (2020): 41 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 4104 Environmental management > 410404 Environmental management
Identification Number or DOI:

Actions (login required)

View Item Archive Repository Staff Only