Genetic biofortification of wheat with zinc: Opportunities to fine-tune zinc uptake, transport and grain loading

Kamaral, Chandima and Neate, Stephen M. and Gunasinghe, Niroshini ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8591-0983 and Milham, Paul J. and Paterson, David J. and Kopittke, Peter M. and Seneweera, Saman (2021) Genetic biofortification of wheat with zinc: Opportunities to fine-tune zinc uptake, transport and grain loading. Physiologia Plantarum, 174 (1):e13612. pp. 1-18. ISSN 0031-9317


Abstract

Zinc (Zn) is an important micronutrient in the human body, and health complications associated with insufficient dietary intake of Zn can be overcome by increasing the bioavailable concentrations in edible parts of crops (biofortification). Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) is the most consumed cereal crop in the world; therefore, it is an excellent target for Zn biofortification programs. Knowledge of the physiological and molecular processes that regulate Zn concentration in the wheat grain is restricted, inhibiting the success of genetic Zn biofortification programs. This review helps break this nexus by advancing understanding of those processes, including speciation regulated uptake, root to shoot transport, remobilisation, grain loading and distribution of Zn in wheat grain. Furthermore, new insights to genetic Zn biofortification of wheat are discussed, and where data are limited, we draw upon information for other cereals and Fe distribution. We identify the loading and distribution of Zn in grain as major bottlenecks for biofortification, recognising anatomical barriers in the vascular region at the base of the grain, and physiological and molecular restrictions localised in the crease region as major limitations. Movement of Zn from the endosperm cavity into the modified aleurone, aleurone and then to the endosperm is mainly regulated by ZIP and YSL transporters. Zn complexation with phytic acid in the aleurone limits Zn mobility into the endosperm. These insights, together with synchrotron-X-ray-fluorescence microscopy, support the hypothesis that a focus on the mechanisms of Zn loading into the grain will provide new opportunities for Zn biofortification of wheat.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Life Sciences and the Environment - Centre for Crop Health (24 Mar 2014 -)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Life Sciences and the Environment - Centre for Crop Health (24 Mar 2014 -)
Date Deposited: 18 Jan 2022 22:57
Last Modified: 21 Jan 2022 02:11
Uncontrolled Keywords: Triticum-Aestivum L.; Ray-fluorescence microscopy; To-shoot translocation; Phytic acid content; Phytosiderophore release; Transcription factors; Element distribution; Iron concentrations; Metal tolerance; Xylem transport
Fields of Research (2008): 07 Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences > 0703 Crop and Pasture Production > 070303 Crop and Pasture Biochemistry and Physiology
Fields of Research (2020): 30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3004 Crop and pasture production > 300404 Crop and pasture biochemistry and physiology
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): B Economic Development > 82 Plant Production and Plant Primary Products > 8205 Winter Grains and Oilseeds > 820507 Wheat
Socio-Economic Objectives (2020): 26 PLANT PRODUCTION AND PLANT PRIMARY PRODUCTS > 2603 Grains and seeds > 260312 Wheat
Identification Number or DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13612
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/46846

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