Sex, Drugs, and Deterrence: Applying Stafford and Warr’s Reconceptualization of Deterrence Theory to Drug Driving Across the Genders

Watling, Christopher N. ORCID: and Freeman, James and Palk, Gavan and Davey, Jeremy (2011) Sex, Drugs, and Deterrence: Applying Stafford and Warr’s Reconceptualization of Deterrence Theory to Drug Driving Across the Genders. In: Psychology of Punishment. Psychology of emotions, motivations and actions. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, United States, pp. 51-71. ISBN 9781613241158


A consistent finding in the literature is that males report greater usage of drugs and subsequently greater amounts of drug driving. Research also suggests that vicarious influences may be more pertinent to males than to females. Utilising Stafford and Warr's (1993) reconceptualization of deterrence theory, this study sought to determine if the relative deterrent impact of zero-tolerance drug driving laws is disparate between genders. A sample of motorists (N = 899) completed a self-report questionnaire assessing participants frequency of drug driving and personal and vicarious experiences with punishment and punishment avoidance. It was found that males were significantly more likely to report future intentions of drug driving. Additionally, vicarious experiences of punishment avoidance was a more influential predictor of future drug driving instances for males with personal experiences of punishment avoidance a more influential predictor for females. This study identifies that the facilitation of drug driving between males and females is differentially influenced from different mechanisms. Importantly, this study's findings can inform gender sensitive media campaigns and interventions for convicted drug drivers.

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Item Type: Book Chapter (Commonwealth Reporting Category B)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: No Faculty
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: No Faculty
Date Deposited: 14 Mar 2022 23:19
Last Modified: 14 Mar 2022 23:19
Uncontrolled Keywords: Deterrence; Drug driving; Drug driving laws; Gender differences; Vicarious experiences
Fields of Research (2008): 11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111799 Public Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified
17 Psychology and Cognitive Sciences > 1701 Psychology > 170113 Social and Community Psychology
17 Psychology and Cognitive Sciences > 1701 Psychology > 170104 Forensic Psychology
Fields of Research (2020): 52 PSYCHOLOGY > 5201 Applied and developmental psychology > 520103 Forensic psychology
42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4206 Public health > 420604 Injury prevention
52 PSYCHOLOGY > 5205 Social and personality psychology > 520505 Social psychology
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970117 Expanding Knowledge in Psychology and Cognitive Sciences
Socio-Economic Objectives (2020): 28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280121 Expanding knowledge in psychology
27 TRANSPORT > 2703 Ground transport > 270311 Road safety

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