From road distraction to safe driving: Evaluating the effects of boredom and gamification on driving behaviour, physiological arousal, and subjective experience

Steinberger, Fabius and Schroeter, Ronald and Watling, Christopher N. ORCID: (2017) From road distraction to safe driving: Evaluating the effects of boredom and gamification on driving behaviour, physiological arousal, and subjective experience. Computers in Human Behavior, 75. pp. 714-726. ISSN 0747-5632

Text (Accepted Version)
Steinberger etal From road distraction to safe driving.pdf

Download (1MB) | Preview


Low levels of engagement and boredom while driving can pose road safety risks, e.g., inattention during low traffic, routine trips, or semi-automated driving. Digital technology interventions that increase task engagement, e.g., through performance feedback, increased challenge, and incentives (often referred to as ‘gamification’), could therefore offer safety benefits. To explore the impact of such interventions, we conducted experiments in a high-fidelity driving simulator with thirty-two participants. In two counterbalanced conditions (control and intervention), we compared driving behaviour, physiological arousal, and subjective experience. Results indicate that the gamified boredom intervention reduced unsafe coping mechanisms such as speeding while promoting anticipatory driving. We can further infer that the intervention not only increased one’s attention and arousal during the intermittent gamification challenges, but that these intermittent stimuli may also help sustain one’s attention and arousal in between challenges and throughout a drive. At the same time, the gamified condition led to slower hazard reactions and short off-road glances. Our contributions deepen our understanding of driver boredom and pave the way for engaging interventions for safety critical tasks.

Statistics for USQ ePrint 46487
Statistics for this ePrint Item
Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: No Faculty
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: No Faculty
Date Deposited: 03 Mar 2022 02:17
Last Modified: 28 Apr 2022 02:59
Uncontrolled Keywords: Automotive user interfaces Boredom; Distraction; Driving simulator study; Electrocardiography (ECG); Electrodermal activity (EDA); Gamification; Human-computer interaction; Mobile interactions; Psychophysiology; Road safety; Smartphone use; Task engagement; Technology augmented driving
Fields of Research (2008): 17 Psychology and Cognitive Sciences > 1702 Cognitive Sciences > 170201 Computer Perception, Memory and Attention
11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111799 Public Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified
17 Psychology and Cognitive Sciences > 1701 Psychology > 170101 Biological Psychology (Neuropsychology, Psychopharmacology, Physiological Psychology)
Fields of Research (2020): 42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4206 Public health > 420604 Injury prevention
52 PSYCHOLOGY > 5202 Biological psychology > 520206 Psychophysiology
52 PSYCHOLOGY > 5204 Cognitive and computational psychology > 520404 Memory and attention
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): B Economic Development > 88 Transport > 8801 Ground Transport > 880109 Road Safety
C Society > 92 Health > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) > 920409 Injury Control
E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970117 Expanding Knowledge in Psychology and Cognitive Sciences
Socio-Economic Objectives (2020): 20 HEALTH > 2004 Public health (excl. specific population health) > 200408 Injury prevention and control
28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280121 Expanding knowledge in psychology
27 TRANSPORT > 2703 Ground transport > 270311 Road safety
Identification Number or DOI:

Actions (login required)

View Item Archive Repository Staff Only