A Liquid Phosphaphenanthrene-Derived Imidazole for Improved Flame Retardancy and Smoke Suppression of Epoxy Resin

Huo, Siqi and Yang, Shuang and Wang, Jun and Cheng, Jianwen and Zhang, Qianqian and Hu, Yefa and Ding, Guoping and Zhang, Qiaoxin and Song, Pingan ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1082-652X and Wang, Hao (2020) A Liquid Phosphaphenanthrene-Derived Imidazole for Improved Flame Retardancy and Smoke Suppression of Epoxy Resin. ACS Applied Polymer Materials, 2 (8). pp. 3566-3575.


Abstract

The fabrication of high-performance thermosetting polymers with intrinsic flame retardancy and smoke suppression is necessary but challenging. Herein, we have successfully synthesized a liquid phosphaphenanthrene/imidazole-containing curing agent (DOPO-AI) for epoxy resin (EP) by the Atherton-Todd reaction of 1-(3-Aminopropyl)imidazole (AI) and 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO). The as-prepared EP/DOPO-AI samples exhibit comparable mechanical properties to the reference EP/AI-6 sample, with slightly decreased glass transition temperatures. Impressively, the EP/DOPO-AI sample can pass the UL-94 V-0 rating and achieve a limited oxygen index (LOI) value of 37.0%. Additionally, the EP/DOPO-AI sample shows 26.3%, 36.6%, and 24.4% reductions in the total heat release (THR), peak of heat release rate (pHRR), and total smoke production (TSP) relative to the EP/AI-6 sample, indicating a significantly reduced fire hazard. The significant enhancements in flame retardancy and smoke suppression are attributed to the condensed-and gaseous-phase effects of DOPO-AI. This work demonstrates a feasible methodology for creating high-performance EPs with inherent flame retardancy and smoke suppression, holding great promise in the future.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Advanced Engineering and Space Sciences - Centre for Future Materials (1 Jan 2017 -)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Advanced Engineering and Space Sciences - Centre for Future Materials (1 Jan 2017 -)
Date Deposited: 07 Mar 2022 01:25
Last Modified: 13 Apr 2022 00:48
Uncontrolled Keywords: epoxy resin; flame retardancy; liquid phosphaphenanthrene-derived imidazole; mechanical properties; smoke suppression
Fields of Research (2008): 09 Engineering > 0912 Materials Engineering > 091202 Composite and Hybrid Materials
Fields of Research (2020): 40 ENGINEERING > 4016 Materials engineering > 401602 Composite and hybrid materials
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970109 Expanding Knowledge in Engineering
Socio-Economic Objectives (2020): 28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280110 Expanding knowledge in engineering
Identification Number or DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsapm.0c00577
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/46325

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