Traumatic life events and risk of posttraumatic stress disorder among the Indigenous population of regional, remote and metropolitan Central-Eastern Australia: a cross-sectional study

Nasir, Bushra F. and Black, Emma and Toombs, Maree and Kisley, Steve and Gill, Neeraj and Beccaria, Gavin ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4341-804X and Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas and Nicholson, Geoffrey (2021) Traumatic life events and risk of posttraumatic stress disorder among the Indigenous population of regional, remote and metropolitan Central-Eastern Australia: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open, 11 (4):e040875. pp. 1-11.

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Abstract

Objective Trauma is reported by 70% of the global population and 4% of those exposed develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but data from Indigenous populations are limited. We aimed to determine the prevalence, types and age of occurrence of traumatic events among community-living Indigenous Australians and associations with PTSD. Design Lifetime trauma and PTSD were quantified among a broadly representative sample of 544 Indigenous participants using a diagnostic clinical interview. Logistic regression examined predictors of PTSD. Setting Metropolitan, regional and remote areas of Southern Queensland and Northern New South Wales. Participants Indigenous Australians 18 years and older. Outcome measures Prevalence of traumatic life events and risk of PTSD. Results 64.9% of participants (standardised prevalence 62.6%) reported lifetime trauma, with more than one trauma category in 62.3%. Females reported 2.3 times more sexual violence, otherwise no gender differences existed. The prevalence of four common trauma categories were 1.7-3.0 times higher than in the Australian population; physical violence being the highest relative risk. Although overall childhood trauma was not increased, sexual or physical violence before age 15 was twice more common than in the Australian population. The standardised prevalence of 12-month PTSD was 13.3% (95% CI 10.4 to 16.1), 16.1% (95% CI 12.2 to 19.9) in females and 8.2% (95% CI 5.3 to 11.1) in males, three times the Australian rates. In multiple regression analysis, independent predictors of PTSD were female gender (OR 2.1), rural residence (OR 3.0), trauma under age 10 (OR 2.2), sexual (without physical) violence (OR 2.5), physical (without sexual) violence (OR 2.3), and both sexual and physical violence (OR 5.0). Conclusion Indigenous Australians are more likely to experience potentially harmful traumas and develop PTSD than other Australians. Mitigation of trauma among Indigenous Australians, particularly childhood exposure and sexual or physical violence, is essential to reduce their high burden of PTSD.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Historic - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Psychology and Counselling (1 Jan 2015 - 31 Dec 2021)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Historic - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Psychology and Counselling (1 Jan 2015 - 31 Dec 2021)
Date Deposited: 12 Jan 2022 03:17
Last Modified: 14 Jan 2022 01:06
Uncontrolled Keywords: epidemiology; mental health; trauma management
Fields of Research (2008): 11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1103 Clinical Sciences > 110319 Psychiatry (incl. Psychotherapy)
Fields of Research (2020): 42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4203 Health services and systems > 420313 Mental health services
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): C Society > 92 Health > 9203 Indigenous Health > 920399 Indigenous Health not elsewhere classified
Socio-Economic Objectives (2020): 21 INDIGENOUS > 2199 Other Indigenous > 219999 Other Indigenous not elsewhere classified
Identification Number or DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/ bmjopen-2020-040875
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/45386

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