Treatment of moderate grade dog bite wounds using amoxicillin–clavulanic acid with and without enrofloxacin: a randomised non‐inferiority trial

Croton, Catriona ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2179-6979 and Kalnins, Nicole and Haworth, Mark and Gibson, Justine and Stewart, Allison and Purcell, Sarah (2021) Treatment of moderate grade dog bite wounds using amoxicillin–clavulanic acid with and without enrofloxacin: a randomised non‐inferiority trial. Australian Veterinary Journal, 99 (9). pp. 369-377. ISSN 0005-0423


Abstract

Background: Dog-to-dog bite wounds are a common veterinary emergency presentation: despite this, there is insufficient information to guide veterinarians on appropriate empirical antimicrobial management. Objectives: Investigate the effectiveness of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid with and without enrofloxacin in the treatment of moderate grade dog bite wounds (DBW). To describe common pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Materials and methods: In a single-centre parallel group pragmatic trial, 50 dogs presenting with moderate grade DBW were prospectively randomised to receive amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (group A) or amoxicillin–clavulanic acid and enrofloxacin (group B). Swabs were taken for culture and susceptibility testing at admission. Stabilisation, wound care and surgical debridement were performed at the discretion of admitting clinicians. The primary outcome was complication due to infection at 10 days, with Bayesian inference used to estimate the difference in proportions between treatment groups. Results: Of the 24 dogs in treatment group A, 1 required the addition of enrofloxacin at re-examination. None of the 26 dogs in group B required alteration of antimicrobial coverage. The difference in complication rate due to infection between treatment groups was 4.2%. Twenty-one different organisms were identified: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Neisseria spp., Pasteurella multocida and P. canis were the most common. Over 90% of gram-negative and gram-positive isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin–clavulanic acid. Ninety-six percent of gram-negative and 86% of gram-positive isolates were susceptible to enrofloxacin. Conclusion and clinical significance: Amoxicillin–clavulanic acid is an appropriate empirical antimicrobial choice for moderate DBW in South East Queensland. Reduced empirical enrofloxacin use will promote antimicrobial stewardship and potentially antimicrobial resistance.


Statistics for USQ ePrint 44190
Statistics for this ePrint Item
Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Historic - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Sciences (6 Sep 2019 - 31 Dec 2021)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Historic - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Sciences (6 Sep 2019 - 31 Dec 2021)
Date Deposited: 02 Dec 2021 04:05
Last Modified: 02 Dec 2021 05:20
Uncontrolled Keywords: antimicrobial stewardship; antimicrobial susceptibility; bacteriology; bite wounds; canine
Fields of Research (2008): 07 Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences > 0707 Veterinary Sciences > 070710 Veterinary Pharmacology
07 Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences > 0707 Veterinary Sciences > 070704 Veterinary Epidemiology
07 Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences > 0707 Veterinary Sciences > 070701 Veterinary Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care
Fields of Research (2020): 30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3009 Veterinary sciences > 300905 Veterinary epidemiology
30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3009 Veterinary sciences > 300911 Veterinary pharmacology
30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3009 Veterinary sciences > 300901 Veterinary anaesthesiology and intensive care
Identification Number or DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/avj.13093
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/44190

Actions (login required)

View Item Archive Repository Staff Only