Fire-retardant unsaturated polyester thermosets: The state-of-the-art, challenges and opportunities

Seraji, Seyed Mohsen and Song, Pingan ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1082-652X and Varley, Russell J. and Bourbigot, Serge and Voice, Dean and Wang, Hao (2022) Fire-retardant unsaturated polyester thermosets: The state-of-the-art, challenges and opportunities. Chemical Engineering Journal, 430:132785. pp. 1-18. ISSN 1385-8947


Abstract

The increasing demands placed upon structural thermosets, such as epoxy and unsaturated polyester (UP), and ever-increasing regulations for fire safety, have driven the development of high-performance ecofriendly fire-retardant thermoset polymers. This review provides a historical overview of fire-retardant UP that aims to review the state-of-the-art design and efficiency of fire-retardant strategies developed in the last decade, and pave the way for developing next-generation fire-retardant UP materials in the future. In general, there are three approaches for creating fire-retardant UP with reactive and additive fire-retardants (FRs). One promising strategy is to develop intrinsically fire-retardant UP resins by using FRs monomers. Another favorable approach is the copolymerization of UP resin with reactive FRs comonomers. The last but encouraging method is the hybridization of phosphorus additive FRs with metal hydroxides. Recently, the design of polymeric, nanostructured and core–shell structured FRs has emerged as a subject of enormous scientific interest. Although advantages of current fire-retardant systems, there have remained some key challenges with them, such as their adverse impacts on the processability, curing behavior, and mechanical properties of UP. This work reviews the state-of-the-art, design, performance, and applications of fire-retardant UP thermosets. Also, additive FRs are classified according to the fire-retardant index (FRI) and the required level of FRs to achieve a UL-94 V-0 rating. Finally, we discuss current challenges and possible directions for future research on the promising fire-retardancy strategies for UP thermosets.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Advanced Engineering and Space Sciences - Centre for Future Materials (1 Jan 2017 -)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Advanced Engineering and Space Sciences - Centre for Future Materials (1 Jan 2017 -)
Date Deposited: 29 Nov 2021 04:23
Last Modified: 23 Mar 2022 04:21
Uncontrolled Keywords: Arts designs; Epoxy; Fire retardancy; Fire safety; Performance; Reactive; State of the art; Unsaturated polyester; Unsaturated polyesters resins
Fields of Research (2008): 09 Engineering > 0912 Materials Engineering > 091202 Composite and Hybrid Materials
09 Engineering > 0912 Materials Engineering > 091205 Functional Materials
Fields of Research (2020): 40 ENGINEERING > 4016 Materials engineering > 401605 Functional materials
40 ENGINEERING > 4016 Materials engineering > 401602 Composite and hybrid materials
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970109 Expanding Knowledge in Engineering
E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970103 Expanding Knowledge in the Chemical Sciences
Socio-Economic Objectives (2020): 28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280105 Expanding knowledge in the chemical sciences
28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280110 Expanding knowledge in engineering
Funding Details:
Identification Number or DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.132785
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/44072

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