Educational mobility across generations of formally and informally employed: evidence from Pakistan

Kishwar, Shabana and Alam, Khorshed ORCID: (2021) Educational mobility across generations of formally and informally employed: evidence from Pakistan. International Journal of Educational Development, 87:102505. pp. 1-9. ISSN 0738-0593


Poverty persists across generations through the transmission of informal employment from one generation to the next. Education and earnings are considered important factors that transmit informal employment across generations. Considering education as one of the transmission mechanisms of sectoral employment and poverty, no studies have yet conducted any comparative analysis of educational persistence across generations of formally and informally employed parents. Therefore, the present study estimates the intergenerational persistence of education by considering the nature of parents’ employment through intergenerational elasticity and intergenerational correlation approaches of mobility measurement. Results show that intergenerational persistence is higher at the lower levels of education when the father is informally employed. On the contrary, when the father is formally employed, this persistence is higher at the higher levels of education. This result implies that labour market reforms are essential along with educational reforms to break this intergenerational persistence.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Permanent restricted access to Published version in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Faculty of Business, Education, Law and Arts - School of Business (18 Jan 2021 -)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Resilient Regions - Rural Economies Centre of Excellence (1 Aug 2018 -)
Date Deposited: 27 Oct 2021 05:00
Last Modified: 10 Nov 2021 06:25
Uncontrolled Keywords: earnings; informality; mobility; opportunities; Pakistan; poverty
Fields of Research (2008): 13 Education > 1301 Education Systems > 130199 Education systems not elsewhere classified
14 Economics > 1402 Applied Economics > 140211 Labour Economics
14 Economics > 1403 Econometrics > 140301 Cross-Sectional Analysis
Fields of Research (2020): 39 EDUCATION > 3999 Other Education > 399999 Other education not elsewhere classified
38 ECONOMICS > 3802 Econometrics > 380201 Cross-sectional analysis
38 ECONOMICS > 3801 Applied economics > 380111 Labour economics
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): C Society > 93 Education and Training > 9399 Other Education and Training > 939908 Workforce Transition and Employment
B Economic Development > 91 Economic Framework > 9101 Macroeconomics > 910107 Macro Labour Market Issues
E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970114 Expanding Knowledge in Economics
Socio-Economic Objectives (2020): 16 EDUCATION AND TRAINING > 1699 Other education and training > 169999 Other education and training not elsewhere classified
15 ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK > 1505 Microeconomics > 150507 Micro labour market issues
28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280108 Expanding knowledge in economics
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