Plasma lipocalin-2/NGAL is stable over 12 weeks and is not modulated by exercise or dieting

Nakai, Michael E. and Denham, Joshua ORCID: and Prestes, Priscilla R. and Eikelis, Nina and Lambert, Elizabeth A. and Straznicky, Nora E. and Schlaich, Markus P. and Esler, Murray D. and O'Brien, Brendan J. and Charchar, Fadi J. and Lambert, Gavin W. and Marques, Francine Z. (2021) Plasma lipocalin-2/NGAL is stable over 12 weeks and is not modulated by exercise or dieting. Scientific Reports, 11 (1):4056. pp. 1-12.

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Amongst other immune cells, neutrophils play a key role in systemic inflammation leading to cardiovascular disease and can release inflammatory factors, including lipocalin-2 (LCN2). LCN2 drives cardiac hypertrophy and plays a role in maladaptive remodelling of the heart and has been associated with renal injury. While lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise are known to attenuate low-grade inflammation, their ability to modulate plasma LCN2 levels is unknown. Forty-eight endurance athletes and 52 controls (18–55 years) underwent measurement for various cardiovascular health indicators, along with plasma LCN2 concentration. No significant difference in LCN2 concentration was seen between the two groups. LCN2 was a very weak predictor or absent from models describing blood pressures or predicting athlete status. In another cohort, 57 non-diabetic overweight or obese men and post-menopausal women who fulfilled Adult Treatment Panel III metabolic syndrome criteria were randomly allocated into either a control, modified Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, or DASH and exercise group. Pre- and post-intervention demographic, cardiovascular health indicators, and plasma LCN2 expression were measured in each individual. While BMI fell in intervention groups, LCN2 levels remained unchanged within and between all groups, as illustrated by strong correlations between LCN2 concentrations pre- and 12 weeks post-intervention (r = 0.743, P < 0.0001). This suggests that circulating LCN2 expression are stable over a period of at least 12 weeks and is not modifiable by diet and exercise.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: No Faculty
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: No Faculty
Date Deposited: 11 Oct 2021 00:29
Last Modified: 09 Nov 2021 00:03
Fields of Research (2008): 11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1106 Human Movement and Sports Science > 110602 Exercise Physiology
06 Biological Sciences > 0601 Biochemistry and Cell Biology > 060199 Biochemistry and Cell Biology not elsewhere classified
11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1111 Nutrition and Dietetics > 111103 Nutritional Physiology
Fields of Research (2020): 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3101 Biochemistry and cell biology > 310199 Biochemistry and cell biology not elsewhere classified
42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4207 Sports science and exercise > 420702 Exercise physiology
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