Are tourism and energy consumption linked? Evidence from Australia

Khanal, Avishek ORCID: and Rahman, Mohammad Mafizur ORCID: and Khanam, Rasheda ORCID: and Velayutham, Eswaran ORCID: (2021) Are tourism and energy consumption linked? Evidence from Australia. Sustainability, 13 (19):10800. pp. 1-21.

Text (Published Version)
Are Tourism and Energy Consumption Linked .pdf
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution 4.0.

Download (1MB) | Preview


Tourism contributes to the growth of an economy via earning foreign currencies and employment opportunities. However, tourism also contributes to greater energy consumption because of various tourist activities such as hotel accommodations and transportation. This study investigates the long-term cointegrating relationship between international tourist arrivals and primary energy consumption in Australia. In addition, the roles of gross domestic product, gross fixed capital formation, financial development, and total population on energy consumption are also examined. The study covered the last four decades (1976–2018) using data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, BP Statistical Review, and the World Development Indicators. Augmented Dickey- Fuller, Phillips-Perron, Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bound tests, Johansen and Juselius, Bayer-Hanck cointegration test, and several key diagnostic tests have been conducted to assess the relationship. The estimated results indicate that tourist arrivals, gross domestic product, and financial development have a significant long-run cointegrating relationship with energy consumption. Policy measures are suggested based on the findings of this study.

Statistics for USQ ePrint 43725
Statistics for this ePrint Item
Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Faculty of Business, Education, Law and Arts - School of Business (18 Jan 2021 -)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Faculty of Business, Education, Law and Arts - School of Business (18 Jan 2021 -)
Date Deposited: 05 Oct 2021 01:22
Last Modified: 08 Sep 2022 05:10
Uncontrolled Keywords: energy consumption; international tourist arrivals; financial development; ARDL; Australia
Fields of Research (2008): 15 Commerce, Management, Tourism and Services > 1506 Tourism > 150601 Impacts of Tourism
14 Economics > 1402 Applied Economics > 140216 Tourism Economics
14 Economics > 1402 Applied Economics > 140299 Applied Economics not elsewhere classified
Fields of Research (2020): 35 COMMERCE, MANAGEMENT, TOURISM AND SERVICES > 3508 Tourism > 350801 Impacts of tourism
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): B Economic Development > 90 Commercial Services and Tourism > 9003 Tourism > 900301 Economic Issues in Tourism
B Economic Development > 85 Energy > 8599 Other Energy > 859999 Energy not elsewhere classified
Socio-Economic Objectives (2020): 17 ENERGY > 1799 Other energy > 179999 Other energy not elsewhere classified
Identification Number or DOI:

Actions (login required)

View Item Archive Repository Staff Only