The nexus between health status and health expenditure, energy consumption and environmental pollution: empirical evidence from SAARC-BIMSTEC regions

Rahman, Mohammad Mafizur ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7950-1961 and Alam, Khosrul (2021) The nexus between health status and health expenditure, energy consumption and environmental pollution: empirical evidence from SAARC-BIMSTEC regions. BMC Public Health, 21 (1):1694. pp. 1-12.

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Abstract

Background
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for the betterment of health status, while also considering health expenditure, energy, and environmental issues. This paper examines the nexus between health status and health expenditure (both public and private), energy consumption and environmental pollution in the SAARC-BIMSTEC region.

Methods
We utilized the panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, the heterogeneous panel causality test, the cross sectional dependence test, the cointegration test and the Pesaran cross sectional dependent (CADF) unit root test for obtaining estimated results from data over 16 years (2002–2017).

Results
Our results authorize the cointegration among the variables used, where the coefficients of energy consumption, public and private health expenditures, and economic growth are 0.027, 0.014, 0.030, and 0.029, respectively, and indicating positive and statistically significant effects. The coefficient of environmental pollution is − 0.085, implying significant negative effect on the health status of these regions in the long-run. However, no panel wise significant impact is found in the short-run. Bidirectional and unidirectional causal links between the studied variables and the health status are also identified..

Conclusions
The improved health status in the SAARC-BIMSTEC region needs to be protected by articulating the effective policies. The attained results are theoretically and empirically consistent, and have important policy implications in the health sector.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: © The Author(s). 2021 Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Faculty of Business, Education, Law and Arts - School of Business (18 Jan 2021 -)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Faculty of Business, Education, Law and Arts - School of Business (18 Jan 2021 -)
Date Deposited: 24 Sep 2021 03:27
Last Modified: 08 Nov 2021 01:34
Uncontrolled Keywords: health status, energy consumption, environmental pollution, health expenditure, panel ARDL
Fields of Research (2008): 05 Environmental Sciences > 0599 Other Environmental Sciences > 059999 Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified
14 Economics > 1402 Applied Economics > 140205 Environment and Resource Economics
11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111799 Public Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified
14 Economics > 1402 Applied Economics > 140208 Health Economics
14 Economics > 1403 Econometrics > 140304 Panel Data Analysis
Fields of Research (2020): 38 ECONOMICS > 3801 Applied economics > 380108 Health economics
38 ECONOMICS > 3801 Applied economics > 380105 Environment and resource economics
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): D Environment > 96 Environment > 9601 Air Quality > 960199 Air Quality not elsewhere classified
B Economic Development > 85 Energy > 8599 Other Energy > 859999 Energy not elsewhere classified
Identification Number or DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11534-w
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/43698

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