Emerging roles of extracellular vesicles in the intercellular communication for exercise-induced adaptations

Denham, Josh ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5804-4960 and Spencer, Sarah J. (2020) Emerging roles of extracellular vesicles in the intercellular communication for exercise-induced adaptations. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism, 319 (2). E320-E329. ISSN 0193-1849


Abstract

Complex organisms rely heavily on intercellular communication. The rapidly expanding field of extracellular vesicle biology has made it clear that the necessary intercellular communication occurs partly through their paracrine and endocrine actions. Extracellular vesicles are nanoscale lipid membranes (30 - 2,000 nm in diameter) that shuttle functional biological material between cells. They are released from numerous tissues and are isolated from nearly all biofluids and cell cultures. Although their biogenesis, cell targeting, and functional roles are incompletely understood, they appear to have crucial roles in physiological and disease processes. Their enormous potential to serve as sensitive biomarkers of disease and also new therapeutic interventions for diseases have gained them considerable attention in recent years. Regular physical exercise training confers systemic health benefits and consequently prevents many age-related degenerative diseases. Many of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the salubrious effects of exercise are known, yet a common underlying mechanism potentially responsible for the holistic health benefits of exercise has only recently been explored (i.e., via extracellular vesicle transport of biological material). Here, we provide an overview of extracellular vesicle biology before outlining the current evidence on the capacity for a single bout and chronic exercise to elicit changes in extracellular vesicle content and modulate their molecular cargo (e.g., small RNAs). We highlight areas for future research and emphasize their potential utility as biomarkers and therapeutic strategies of disease and its prevention.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: No Faculty
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: No Faculty
Date Deposited: 13 Dec 2021 03:22
Last Modified: 22 Dec 2021 04:42
Uncontrolled Keywords: Exercise adaptations; Exercise training; Gene; Small RNA; Tissue cross-talk
Fields of Research (2008): 06 Biological Sciences > 0604 Genetics > 060499 Genetics not elsewhere classified
11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1106 Human Movement and Sports Science > 110602 Exercise Physiology
Fields of Research (2020): 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3105 Genetics > 310599 Genetics not elsewhere classified
42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4207 Sports science and exercise > 420702 Exercise physiology
Identification Number or DOI: https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00215.2020
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/43615

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