Cyclic eccentric stretching induces more damage and improved subsequent protection than stretched isometric contractions in the lower limb

Pincheira, Patricio A. and Hoffman, Ben W. ORCID: and Cresswell, Andrew G. and Carroll, Timothy J. and Brown, Nicholas A. T. and Lichtwark, Glen A. (2021) Cyclic eccentric stretching induces more damage and improved subsequent protection than stretched isometric contractions in the lower limb. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 121 (12). pp. 3349-3360. ISSN 1439-6319


Purpose: Controversy remains about whether exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and the subsequent repeated bout effect (RBE) are caused by the stretching of an activated muscle, or the production of high force at long, but constant, muscle lengths. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of muscle fascicle stretch elicited during different muscle contraction types on the magnitude of EIMD and the RBE. Methods: Fourteen participants performed an initial bout of lower limb exercise of the triceps surae. One leg performed sustained static contractions at a constant long muscle length (ISO), whereas the contralateral leg performed a bout of eccentric heel drop exercise (ECC). Time under tension was matched between the ECC and ISO conditions. Seven days later, both legs performed ECC. Plantar flexor twitch torque, medial gastrocnemius (MG) fascicle length and muscle soreness were assessed before, 2 h and 2 days after each exercise bout. MG fascicle length and triceps surae surface electromyography were examined across the bouts of exercise. Results: We found that both ECC and ISO conditions elicited EIMD and a RBE. ISO caused less damage 2 h after the initial bout (14% less drop in twitch torque, P = 0.03) and less protection from soreness 2 days after the repeated bout (56% higher soreness, P = 0.01). No differences were found when comparing neuromechanical properties across exercise bouts. Conclusion: For MG, the action of stretching an active muscle seems to be more important for causing damage than a sustained contraction at a long length.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Files associated with this item cannot be displayed due to copyright restrictions.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Historic - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Health and Wellbeing (1 Jan 2015 - 31 Dec 2021)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Resilient Regions - Centre for Health Research (1 Apr 2020 -)
Date Deposited: 03 Sep 2021 01:58
Last Modified: 20 Jun 2022 03:53
Uncontrolled Keywords: exercise-induced muscle damage; repeated bout effect; triceps surae; muscle soreness; ultrasonography
Fields of Research (2008): 11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1106 Human Movement and Sports Science > 110601 Biomechanics
Fields of Research (2020): 42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4207 Sports science and exercise > 420701 Biomechanics
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