Fusarium: more than a node or a foot-shaped basal cell

Crous, P. W. and Lombard, L. and Sandoval-Denis, M. and Seifert, K. A. and Schroers, H.-J. and Chaverri, P. and Gene, J. and Guarro, J. and Hirooka, Y. and Bensch, K. and Kema, G. H. J. and Lamprecht, S. C. and Cai, L. and Rossman, A. Y. and Stadler, M. and Summerbell, R. C. and Taylor, J. W. and Ploch, S. and Visagie, C. M. and Yilmaz, N. and Frisvad, J. C. and Abdel-Azeem, A. M. and Abdollahzadeh, J. and Abdolrasouli, A. and Akulov, A. and Alberts, J. F. and Araujo, J. P. M. and Ariyawansa, H. A. and Bakhshi, M. and Bendiksby, M. and Ben Hadj Amor, A. and Bezerra, J. D. P. and Boekhout, T. and Camara, M. P. S. and Carbia, M. and Cardinali, G. and Castaneda-Ruiz, R. F. and Celis, A. and Chaturvedi, V. and Collemare, J. and Croll, D. and Damm, U. and Decock, C. A. and de Vries, R. P. and Ezekiel, C. N. and Fan, X. L. and Fernandez, N. B. and Gaya, E. and Gonzalez, C. D. and Gramaje, D. and Groenewald, J. Z. and Grube, M. and Guevara-Suarez, M. and Gupta, V. K. and Guarnaccia, V. and Haddaji, A. and Hagen, F. and Haelewaters, D. and Hansen, K. and Hashimoto, A. and Hernandez-Restrepo, M. and Houbraken, J. and Hubka, V. and Hyde, K. D. and Iturriaga, T. and Jeewon, R. and Johnston, P. R. and Jurjevic, Z. and Karalti, I. and Korsten, L. and Kuramae, E. E. and Kusan, I. and Labuda, R. and Lawrence, D. P. and Lee, H. B. and Lechat, C. and Li, H. Y. and Litovka, Y. A. and Maharachchikumbura, S. S. N. and Marin-Felix, Y. and Matio Kemkuignou, B. and Matocec, N. and McTaggart, A. R. and Mlcoch, P. and Mugnai, L. and Nakashima, C. and Nilsson, R. H. and Noumeur, S. R. and Pavlov, I. N. and Peralta, M. P. and Phillips, A. J. L. and Pitt, J. I. and Polizzi, G. and Quaedvlieg, W. and Rajeshkumar, K. C. and Restrepo, S. and Rhaiem, A. and Robert, J. and Robert, V. and Rodrigues, A. M. and Salgado-Salazar, C. and Samson, R. A. and Santos, A. C. S. and Shivas, R. G. and Souza-Motta, C. M. and Sun, G. Y. and Swart, W. J. and Szoke, S. and Tan, Y. P. and Taylor, J. E. and Taylor, P. W. J. and Tiago, P. V. and Vaczy, K. Z. and van de Wiele, N. and van der Merwe, N. A. and Verkley, G. J. M. and Vieira, W. A. S. and Vizzini, A. and Weir, B. S. and Wijayawardene, N. N. and Xia, J. W. and Yanez-Morales, M. J. and Yurkov, A. and Zamora, J. C. and Zare, R. and Zhang, C. L. and Thines, M. (2021) Fusarium: more than a node or a foot-shaped basal cell. Studies in Mycology, 98:100116. pp. 1-184. ISSN 0166-0616

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Abstract

Recent publications have argued that there are potentially serious consequences for researchers in recognising distinct genera in the terminal fusarioid clade of the family Nectriaceae. Thus, an alternate hypothesis, namely a very broad concept of the genus Fusarium was proposed. In doing so, however, a significant body of data that supports distinct genera in Nectriaceae based on morphology, biology, and phylogeny is disregarded. A DNA phylogeny based on 19 orthologous protein-coding genes was presented to support a very broad concept of Fusarium at the F1 node in Nectriaceae. Here, we demonstrate that re-analyses of this dataset show that all 19 genes support the F3 node that represents Fusarium sensu stricto as defined by F. sambucinum (sexual morph synonym Gibberella pulicaris). The backbone of the phylogeny is resolved by the concatenated alignment, but only six of the 19 genes fully support the F1 node, representing the broad circumscription of Fusarium. Furthermore, a re-analysis of the concatenated dataset revealed alternate topologies in different phylogenetic algorithms, highlighting the deep divergence and unresolved placement of various Nectriaceae lineages proposed as members of Fusarium. Species of Fusarium s. str. are characterised by Gibberella sexual morphs, asexual morphs with thin- or thick-walled macroconidia that have variously shaped apical and basal cells, and trichothecene mycotoxin production, which separates them from other fusarioid genera. Here we show that the Wollenweber concept of Fusarium presently accounts for 20 segregate genera with clear-cut synapomorphic traits, and that fusarioid macroconidia represent a character that has been gained or lost multiple times throughout Nectriaceae. Thus, the very broad circumscription of Fusarium is blurry and without apparent synapomorphies, and does not include all genera with fusarium-like macroconidia, which are spread throughout Nectriaceae (e.g., Cosmosporella, Macroconia, Microcera). In this study four new genera are introduced, along with 18 new species and 16 new combinations. These names convey information about relationships, morphology, and ecological preference that would otherwise be lost in a broader definition of Fusarium. To assist users to correctly identify fusarioid genera and species, we introduce a new online identification database, Fusarioid-ID, accessible at www.fusarium.org. The database comprises partial sequences from multiple genes commonly used to identify fusarioid taxa (act1, CaM, his3, rpb1, rpb2, tef1, tub2, ITS, and LSU). In this paper, we also present a nomenclator of names that have been introduced in Fusarium up to January 2021 as well as their current status, types, and diagnostic DNA barcode data. In this study, researchers from 46 countries, representing taxonomists, plant pathologists, medical mycologists, quarantine officials, regulatory agencies, and students, strongly support the application and use of a more precisely delimited Fusarium (= Gibberella) concept to accommodate taxa from the robust monophyletic node F3 on the basis of a well-defined and unique combination of morphological and biochemical features. This F3 node includes, among others, species of the F. fujikuroi, F. incarnatum-equiseti, F. oxysporum, and F. sambucinum species complexes, but not species of Bisifusarium [F. dimerum species complex (SC)], Cyanonectria (F. buxicola SC), Geejayessia (F. staphyleae SC), Neocosmospora (F. solani SC) or Rectifusarium (F. ventricosum SC). The present study represents the first step to generating a new online monograph of Fusarium and allied fusarioid genera (www.fusarium.org).


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Life Sciences and the Environment - Centre for Crop Health (24 Mar 2014 -)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Life Sciences and the Environment - Centre for Crop Health (24 Mar 2014 -)
Date Deposited: 20 Aug 2021 03:34
Last Modified: 20 Sep 2021 05:25
Uncontrolled Keywords: Multi-gene phylogeny, Mycotoxins, Nectriaceae, Neocosmospora, Novel taxa, Pathogen, Taxonomy, Fusarium
Fields of Research (2008): 06 Biological Sciences > 0607 Plant Biology > 060704 Plant Pathology
06 Biological Sciences > 0605 Microbiology > 060505 Mycology
Fields of Research (2020): 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3107 Microbiology > 310705 Mycology
31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3108 Plant biology > 310805 Plant pathology
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970106 Expanding Knowledge in the Biological Sciences
Socio-Economic Objectives (2020): 28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280102 Expanding knowledge in the biological sciences
Identification Number or DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2021.100116
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/43289

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