The epidemiology of muscle-strengthening exercise in Europe: a 28-country comparison including 280,605 adults

Bennie, Jason A. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8668-8998 and De Cocker, Katrien and Smith, Jordan J. and Wiesner, Glen H. (2020) The epidemiology of muscle-strengthening exercise in Europe: a 28-country comparison including 280,605 adults. PLoS One, 15 (11):e0242220. pp. 1-18.

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Abstract

Objective:
Muscle-strengthening exercise (use of weight machines, free weights, push-ups, sit-ups), has multiple independent health benefits, and is a component of the Global physical activity guidelines. However, there is currently a lack of multi-country muscle-strengthening exercise prevalence studies. This study describes the prevalence and correlates of muscle-strengthening exercise across multiple European countries.

Methods:
Data were drawn from the European Health Interview Survey Wave 2 (2013-14), which included nationally representative samples (n = 3,774-24,016) from 28 European countries. Muscle-strengthening exercise was assessed using the European Health Interview Survey Physical Activity Questionnaire. Population-weighted proportions were calculated for (1) 'insufficient' (0-1 days/week) or (2) 'sufficient' muscle-strengthening exercise (>= 2 days/week). Prevalence ratios were calculated using multivariate Poisson regression for those reporting sufficient muscle-strengthening by country and by sociodemographic/lifestyle characteristics (sex, age, education, income, self-rated health etc.).

Results:
Data were available for 280,605 European adults aged >= 18 years. Overall, 17.3% (95% CI = 17.1%-17.5%) reported sufficient muscle-strengthening exercise (>= 2 days/week). Muscle-strengthening exercise was geographically patterned with the lowest prevalence reported in South-eastern European countries (Romania, Malta and Cyprus: range: 0.7%-7.4%), and the highest prevalence in the Nordic countries (Iceland, Sweden, and Denmark: range: 34.1%-51.6%). Older age, insufficient aerobic activity, poorer self-rated health, lower income/education, being female, and being overweight/obese were significantly associated with lower likelihood of reporting sufficient muscle-strengthening exercise, independently of other characteristics.

Conclusions:
Most European adults do not report sufficient muscle-strengthening exercise, and prevalence estimates varied considerably across countries. Low participation in muscle-strengthening exercise is widespread across Europe, and warrants public health attention.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Copyright: ©2020 Bennie et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproductionin any medium,provided the original author and source are credited.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Resilient Regions - Centre for Health Research (1 Apr 2020 -)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Resilient Regions - Centre for Health Research (1 Apr 2020 -)
Date Deposited: 15 Feb 2021 02:25
Last Modified: 16 Feb 2021 03:28
Uncontrolled Keywords: physical activity; health; inactivity; life; participation; association; worldwide; quality; fitness; access
Fields of Research (2008): 11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111706 Epidemiology
11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1106 Human Movement and Sports Science > 110699 Human Movement and Sports Science not elsewhere classified
Fields of Research (2020): 42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4202 Epidemiology > 420201 Behavioural epidemiology
42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4207 Sports science and exercise > 420799 Sports science and exercise not elsewhere classified
Identification Number or DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0242220
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/41269

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