Transmission of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to adults of Kuschelorhynchus macadamiae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from infected adults and conidiated cadavers

Khun, Kim Khuy ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6937-2721 and Ash, Gavin J. and Stevens, Mark M. and Huwer, Ruth K. and Wilson, Bree A. L. (2021) Transmission of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to adults of Kuschelorhynchus macadamiae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from infected adults and conidiated cadavers. Scientific Reports, 11:2188. pp. 1-12.

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Abstract

Kuschelorhynchus macadamiae is a major pest of macadamias in Australia, causing yield losses of up to 15%. Our previous studies have shown the weevil is susceptible to Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The aim of this study was to investigate horizontal transmission of both fungal species to healthy weevils from both infected adults and weevil cadavers. In a confined environment the mortality of healthy adults caused by the transmission of conidia from live fungus-infected adults was < 50%. Under similar experimental conditions, the mortality of healthy adults reached 100% when exposed to conidiated cadavers. However, when conidiated cadavers were used in more spacious environments (insect cages), the mortality of adults was < 80%. Using scanning electron microscopy, it was observed that all healthy adults had conidia attached to all external parts of the body. This suggests that although the conidia were readily transferred to the adults, the lower mortality in the larger insect cages could be the result of an unfavourable environmental factor such as low humidity. The presence of conidia attached to all the adults indicated that they did not show any discriminatory behaviour such as avoidance of conidiated cadavers infected by these two fungal species. The results from this study show that there is potential for enhanced control of adult K. macadamiae via transmission from either fungus-infected adults or conidiated cadavers and this could strengthen sustainable pest management in macadamias.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creat iveco mmons .org/licen ses/by/4.0/.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Life Sciences and the Environment - Centre for Crop Health (24 Mar 2014 -)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Life Sciences and the Environment - Centre for Crop Health (24 Mar 2014 -)
Date Deposited: 02 Feb 2021 04:46
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2021 05:14
Fields of Research (2008): 07 Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences > 0701 Agriculture, Land and Farm Management > 070108 Sustainable Agricultural Development
07 Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences > 0706 Horticultural Production > 070603 Horticultural Crop Protection (Pests, Diseases and Weeds)
Fields of Research (2020): 30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3002 Agriculture, land and farm management > 300210 Sustainable agricultural development
30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3008 Horticultural production > 300804 Horticultural crop protection (incl. pests, diseases and weeds)
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): B Economic Development > 82 Plant Production and Plant Primary Products > 8202 Horticultural Crops > 820206 Macadamias
Socio-Economic Objectives (2020): 26 PLANT PRODUCTION AND PLANT PRIMARY PRODUCTS > 2605 Horticultural crops > 260507 Macadamias
Identification Number or DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81647-0
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/41078

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