What lessons do the first Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) formulation process and implementation outcome provide to the enhanced/updated NDC? A reality check from Nepal

Laudari, Hari Krishna and Aryal, Kishor and Bhusal, Shreejana and Maraseni, Tek (2020) What lessons do the first Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) formulation process and implementation outcome provide to the enhanced/updated NDC? A reality check from Nepal. Science of the Total Environment:143509. pp. 1-12. ISSN 0048-9697


Abstract

Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) are the foundation of the Paris Agreement. So far, 190 Parties have submitted their NDCs. But how the NDC can be made comprehensive, unanimous and implementable so that the Paris climate goals can be achieved has been a matter of growing concern among policymakers, academics, and practitioners. Aiming to bridge the knowledge gap about institutional deliberation of NDCs, we assessed the formulation process and implementation outcome of Nepal’s first NDC by employing qualitative research methods. We undertook semi-structured interviews (n = 10) with all experts and bureaucrats engaged in the NDC formulation process. Moreover, we conducted group discussions (n = 18) with nine stakeholder groups and key informant surveys (n = 12) with four stakeholder groups representing cross-sectoral ministries, private-sector, (retired) bureaucrats, and media people. We also reviewed contemporary literature and progress report of sectoral governments and other related institutions. The collected data were then analyzed by applying the discursive institutional framework. As NDC is a national political plan of climate action and demands support and commitment from a wide spectrum of society, our results, however, revealed that Nepal’s first NDC was formulated without engaging politicians and the other major state and non-state actors. Moreover, the country’s NDC was framed and articulated only for fulfilling international obligation (or commitment) and getting international fund, but not as a determined national climate plan of action for expediting climate action at (sub) national level. Our analysis further found that very few institutions including policies, programmes, and budgets were arranged for translating targets of the NDC into action. Because of these shortcomings, Nepal's first NDC could not achieve most of its stipulated targets. Based on the analysis and results of our study, we have discussed and recommended some pathways that are critical for the formulation and implementation of enhanced/updated NDCs in Nepal and the other countries.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Life Sciences and the Environment - Centre for Sustainable Agricultural Systems (1 Aug 2018 -)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Life Sciences and the Environment - Centre for Sustainable Agricultural Systems (1 Aug 2018 -)
Date Deposited: 19 Nov 2020 04:38
Last Modified: 23 Nov 2020 00:15
Uncontrolled Keywords: Climate change; Adaptation; Mitigation; Climate action; Discourse; Discursive institutionalism
Fields of Research (2008): 05 Environmental Sciences > 0502 Environmental Science and Management > 050205 Environmental Management
Fields of Research (2020): 41 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 4101 Climate change impacts and adaptation > 410199 Climate change impacts and adaptation not elsewhere classified
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): D Environment > 96 Environment > 9603 Climate and Climate Change > 960302 Climate Change Mitigation Strategies
Identification Number or DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143509
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/40105

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