Compatibility of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana with insecticides and fungicides used in macadamia production in Australia

Khun, Kim Khuy ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6937-2721 and Ash, Gavin J. and Stevens, Mark M. and Huwer, Ruth K. and Wilson, Bree A.L. (2021) Compatibility of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana with insecticides and fungicides used in macadamia production in Australia. Pest Management Science, 77 (2). pp. 709-718. ISSN 1526-498X


Abstract

Background
Integrating fungal biocontrol agents into crop protection programs dominated by synthetic pesticides is an important first step towards developing an IPM program, however their successful integration relies on an understanding of how their performance may be impacted by the remaining agrochemicals deployed for managing other pests and diseases. In this study we tested ten formulated pesticides used in macadamia production at different concentrations to determine their effects on the germination, mycelial growth and sporulation of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana in vitro. Further tests with laboratory grade actives of the non‐compatible pesticides were conducted to determine whether any antagonistic effects were caused by the active constituent or by formulation additives.

Results
At their registered concentrations, formulated trichlorfon, acephate and indoxacarb were compatible with M. anisopliae, whereas B. bassiana showed compatibility with formulated trichlorfon, acephate, indoxacarb, sulfoxaflor and spinetoram. Bioassays using laboratory grade active constituents indicated that the adverse impact of formulated beta‐cyfluthrin on both fungal species and that of formulated methidathion on B. bassiana is probably due to components of the emulsifiable concentrate formulations rather than their active constituents. Diazinon was the only insecticidal active that showed high toxicity to both fungal species. The two fungicides, carbendazim and pyraclostrobin, were toxic to both fungal species at all tested concentrations.

Conclusion
Our results identify which pesticides used on macadamias in Australia are compatible and incompatible with entomopathogenic fungi. Future studies on pesticides degradation rates will help define the spray intervals required to eliminate these adverse effects.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Life Sciences and the Environment - Centre for Crop Health (24 Mar 2014 -)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Life Sciences and the Environment - Centre for Crop Health (24 Mar 2014 -)
Date Deposited: 11 Sep 2020 01:20
Last Modified: 23 Apr 2021 04:05
Uncontrolled Keywords: biological index, compatibility, entomopathogenic fungi, fungicides, insecticides
Fields of Research (2008): 07 Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences > 0701 Agriculture, Land and Farm Management > 070108 Sustainable Agricultural Development
07 Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences > 0706 Horticultural Production > 070603 Horticultural Crop Protection (Pests, Diseases and Weeds)
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): B Economic Development > 82 Plant Production and Plant Primary Products > 8202 Horticultural Crops > 820206 Macadamias
Identification Number or DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.6065
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/39496

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