Solar powered nanofiltration for drinking water production from fluoride-containing groundwater: a pilot study towards developing a sustainable and low-cost treatment plant

Bouhadjar, Saadia Ilhem and Kopp, Holger and Britsch, Pia and Deowan, Shamim Ahmed and Hoinkis, Jan and Bundschuh, Jochen (2019) Solar powered nanofiltration for drinking water production from fluoride-containing groundwater: a pilot study towards developing a sustainable and low-cost treatment plant. Journal of Environmental Management, 231. pp. 1263-1269. ISSN 0301-4797


Abstract

The following paper summarizes the findings of a pilot study to develop a simple, low-cost, holistic water concept on fluoride removal from groundwater in rural communities of Tanzania; an ideal representative community for other areas in the world with similar problems. A small photovoltaic powered nanofiltration (NF) pilot plant was installed at a vocational training center in Boma Ng´ombe in northern Tanzania. The groundwater in this region is contaminated with fluoride at very high concentrations of up to 60 mg/L. The pilot plant was equipped with a single membrane module containing a spiral wound 4040 membrane NF90 of Dow Water & Process Solutions and was successfully operated over a nine-month period. The membrane removed more than 98% of fluoride. In fact, the fluoride concentration in the permeate was always less than 1 mg/L, which is in agreement with the WHO recommended standard (1.5 mg/L). Permeate was also used as weekly flush medium, so no chemical cleaning was required. Aside from permeate (drinking water) concentrate was also used for washing and flushing the toilets. In conclusion, the use of solar PV power (2.25 KW P ) for approximately 2.5 h per day allowed producing about 240 L/h of permeate on average. Therefore, the sustainability of the process and suitability for the Tanzanian communities was proved.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Permanent restricted access to Published version, in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Civil Engineering and Surveying (1 Jul 2013 -)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Civil Engineering and Surveying (1 Jul 2013 -)
Date Deposited: 19 Feb 2020 04:48
Last Modified: 24 Feb 2020 02:05
Uncontrolled Keywords: fluoride removal, nanofiltration, sustainable concept, drinking water treatment, energy autonomy, groundwater in Tanzania
Fields of Research (2008): 09 Engineering > 0904 Chemical Engineering > 090410 Water Treatment Processes
09 Engineering > 0904 Chemical Engineering > 090404 Membrane and Separation Technologies
05 Environmental Sciences > 0502 Environmental Science and Management > 050205 Environmental Management
09 Engineering > 0907 Environmental Engineering > 090703 Environmental Technologies
10 Technology > 1099 Other Technology > 109999 Technology not elsewhere classified
Fields of Research (2020): 40 ENGINEERING > 4004 Chemical engineering > 400411 Water treatment processes
40 ENGINEERING > 4004 Chemical engineering > 400409 Separation technologies
41 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 4104 Environmental management > 410404 Environmental management
40 ENGINEERING > 4011 Environmental engineering > 401102 Environmentally sustainable engineering
41 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 4103 Environmental biotechnology > 410399 Environmental biotechnology not elsewhere classified
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): C Society > 92 Health > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) > 920499 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) not elsewhere classified
D Environment > 96 Environment > 9609 Land and Water Management > 960999 Land and Water Management of Environments not elsewhere classified
Identification Number or DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.07.067
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/38025

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