Near-resonance in a System of Sub-Neptunes from TESS

Quinn, Samuel N. and Becker, Juliette C. and Rodriguez, Joseph E. and Hadden, Sam and Huang, Chelsea X. and Morton, Timothy D. and Adams, Fred C. and Armstrong, David and Eastman, Jason D. and Horner, Jonathan and Kane, Stephen R. and Lissauer, Jack J. and Twicken, Joseph D. and Vanderburg, Andrew and Wittenmyer, Rob and Ricker, George R. and Vanderspek, Roland K. and Latham, David W. and Seager, Sara and Winn, Joshua N. and Jenkins, Jon M. and Agol, Eric and Barkaoui, Khalid and Beichman, Charles A. and Bouchy, François and Bouma, L. G. and Burdanov, Artem and Campbell, Jennifer and Carlino, Roberto and Cartwright, Scott M. and Charbonneau, David and Christiansen, Jessie L. and Ciardi, David and Collins, Karen A. and Collins, Kevin I. and Conti, Dennis M. and Crossfield, Ian J. M. and Daylan, Tansu and Dittmann, Jason and Doty, John and Dragomir, Diana and Ducrot, Elsa and Gillon, Michael and Glidden, Ana and Goeke, Robert F. and Gonzales, Erica J. and Helminiak, Krzysztof G. and Horch, Elliott P. and Howell, Steve B. and Jehin, Emmanuel and Jensen, Eric L. N. and Kielkopf, John F. and Kristiansen, Martti H. and Law, Nicholas and Mann, Andrew W. and Marmier, Maxime and Matson, Rachel A. and Matthews, Elisabeth and Mazeh, Tsevi and Mori, Mayuko and Murgas, Felipe and Murray, Catriona and Narita, Norio and Nielsen, Louise D. and Ottoni, Gaël and Palle, Enric and Pawlaszek, Rafał and Pepe, Francesco and Pitogo de Leon, Jerome and Pozuelos, Francisco J. and Relles, Howard M. and Schlieder, Joshua E. and Sebastian, Daniel and Segransan, Damien and Shporer, Avi and Stassun, Keivan G. and Tamura, Motohide and Udry, Stéphane and Waite, Ian and Winters, Jennifer G. and Ziegler, Carl (2019) Near-resonance in a System of Sub-Neptunes from TESS. The Astronomical Journal, 158. pp. 177-192. ISSN 0004-6256

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We report the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite detection of a multi-planet system orbiting the V = 10.9 K0 dwarf TOI-125. We find evidence for up to five planets, with varying confidence. Three transit signals with high signal-to-noise ratio correspond to sub-Neptune-sized planets (2.76, 2.79, and 2.94 R <SUB>⊕</SUB>), and we statistically validate the planetary nature of the two inner planets (P <SUB> b </SUB> = 4.65 days, P <SUB> c </SUB> = 9.15 days). With only two transits observed, we report the outer object (P <SUB>.03</SUB> = 19.98 days) as a planet candidate with high signal-to-noise ratio. We also detect a candidate transiting super-Earth (1.4 R <SUB>⊕</SUB>) with an orbital period of only 12.7 hr and a candidate Neptune-sized planet (4.2 R <SUB>⊕</SUB>) with a period of 13.28 days, both at low signal-to-noise ratio. This system is amenable to mass determination via radial velocities and transit-timing variations, and provides an opportunity to study planets of similar size while controlling for age and environment. The ratio of orbital periods between TOI-125 b and c (P <SUB> c </SUB>/P <SUB> b </SUB> = 1.97) is slightly lower than an exact 2:1 commensurability and is atypical of multiple planet systems from Kepler, which show a preference for period ratios just wide of first-order period ratios. A dynamical analysis refines the allowed parameter space through stability arguments and suggests that despite the nearly commensurate periods, the system is unlikely to be in resonance.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: © American Institute of Physics
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Advanced Engineering and Space Sciences - Centre for Astrophysics (1 Aug 2018 -)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Advanced Engineering and Space Sciences - Centre for Astrophysics (1 Aug 2018 -)
Date Deposited: 23 Jan 2020 08:02
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2021 05:59
Uncontrolled Keywords: Transit photometry; Mini Neptunes; Super Earths; Exoplanets; Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics
Fields of Research (2008): 02 Physical Sciences > 0201 Astronomical and Space Sciences > 020110 Stellar Astronomy and Planetary Systems
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970102 Expanding Knowledge in the Physical Sciences
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