The solar wind in time – II. 3D stellar wind structure and radio emission

O Fionnagain, D. and Vidotto, A. A. and Petit, P. and Folsom, C. P. and Jeffers, S. V. and Marsden, S. C. and Morin, J. and do Nascimento, Jr., J.-D. and BCool Collaboration, . (2019) The solar wind in time – II. 3D stellar wind structure and radio emission. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 483 (1). pp. 873-886. ISSN 0035-8711

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In this work, we simulate the evolution of the solar wind along its main-sequence lifetime and compute its thermal radio emission. To study the evolution of the solar wind, we use a sample of solar mass stars at different ages. All these stars have observationally reconstructed magnetic maps, which are incorporated in our 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of their winds. We show that angular-momentum loss and mass-loss rates decrease steadily on evolutionary time-scales, although they can vary in a magnetic cycle time-scale. Stellar winds are known to emit radiation in the form of thermal bremsstrahlung in the radio spectrum. To calculate the expected radio fluxes from these winds, we solve the radiative transfer equation numerically from first principles. We compute continuum spectra across the frequency range 100 MHz to 100 GHz and find maximum radio flux densities ranging from 0.05 to 2.2 μJy. At a frequency of 1 GHz and a normalized distance of d = 10 pc, the radio flux density follows 0.24 (Ω/Ω☉)0.9 (d/[10pc])-2μJy, where Ω is the rotation rate. This means that the best candidates for stellar wind observations in the radio regime are faster rotators within distances of 10 pc, such as κ1 Ceti (0.73 μJy) and χ1 Ori (2.2 μJy). These flux predictions provide a guide to observing solar-type stars across the frequency range 0.1-100 GHz in the future using the next generation of radio telescopes, such as ngVLA and Square Kilometre Array.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: This article has been accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ©: 2019 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Advanced Engineering and Space Sciences - Centre for Astrophysics (1 Aug 2018 -)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Sciences (6 Sep 2019 -)
Date Deposited: 23 Jan 2020 00:53
Last Modified: 29 Jan 2020 05:45
Uncontrolled Keywords: stars: solar-type; stars: winds; outflows; radio continuum; stars
Fields of Research (2008): 02 Physical Sciences > 0201 Astronomical and Space Sciences > 020110 Stellar Astronomy and Planetary Systems
Fields of Research (2020): 51 PHYSICAL SCIENCES > 5101 Astronomical sciences > 510109 Stellar astronomy and planetary systems
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970102 Expanding Knowledge in the Physical Sciences
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