Ecological and economic growth interdependency in the Asian economies: an empirical analysis

Uddin, Gazi A. and Alam, Khorshed ORCID: and Gow, Jeff ORCID: (2019) Ecological and economic growth interdependency in the Asian economies: an empirical analysis. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26 (13). pp. 13159-13172. ISSN 0944-1344


The relationship between national income growth and the environment of 14 Asian economies over a 50 year period is examined using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. Ecological Footprint (EF) measures environmental impacts and gross domestic product (GDP) measures economic growth. It is hypothesised that increased rates of economic growth come at a cost to the natural environment. The EKC hypothesis has been mainly tested in the literature by cross-sectional or panel data methods. In this study, it is tested using time series analysis through initially examining the relationship between EF and GDP using linear, quadratic and cubic estimating OLS regression functions. In the second stage, the long-run relationship between EF and GDP is investigated using an augmented error correction trend model. There is a statistically significant cointegrated long-run relationship between the variables in most of the countries. The EKC hypothesis is supported in the case of India, Nepal, Malaysia and Pakistan with the other countries exhibiting a positive linear relationship between the two variables. Almost all error correction terms are correct in sign and significance that implies that some percentage of disequilibria in EF in the previous year adjusts back to the long-run equilibrium in the current year. Based on the long-run relationship, it is apparent that rapid economic growth has had an impact on the environment and the ecosystems of these countries over the last 50 years. Despite that, until now, not many of them have taken sufficient steps to reduce their EF or to improve their bioproductive capacity.

Statistics for USQ ePrint 37341
Statistics for this ePrint Item
Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Permanent restricted access to Published version, in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Historic - Faculty of Business, Education, Law and Arts - School of Commerce (1 Jul 2013 - 17 Jan 2021)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Historic - Institute for Resilient Regions - Centre for Health, Informatics and Economic Research (1 Aug 2018 - 31 Mar 2020)
Date Deposited: 26 Nov 2019 03:12
Last Modified: 23 Mar 2022 02:12
Uncontrolled Keywords: ecological footprint, environmental Kuznets Curve, error correction model, gross domestic product, unit root cointegration, Asia
Fields of Research (2008): 14 Economics > 1402 Applied Economics > 140205 Environment and Resource Economics
05 Environmental Sciences > 0501 Ecological Applications > 050199 Ecological Applications not elsewhere classified
14 Economics > 1402 Applied Economics > 140202 Economic Development and Growth
Fields of Research (2020): 38 ECONOMICS > 3801 Applied economics > 380105 Environment and resource economics
41 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 4102 Ecological applications > 410299 Ecological applications not elsewhere classified
44 HUMAN SOCIETY > 4404 Development studies > 440499 Development studies not elsewhere classified
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): D Environment > 96 Environment > 9605 Ecosystem Assessment and Management > 960501 Ecosystem Assessment and Management at Regional or Larger Scales
B Economic Development > 91 Economic Framework > 9101 Macroeconomics > 910102 Demography
Identification Number or DOI:

Actions (login required)

View Item Archive Repository Staff Only