Out-of-grade sawn pine: a state-of-the-art review on challenges and new opportunities in cross laminated timber (CLT)

Cherry, Rebecca and Manalo, Allan and Karunasena, Warna and Stringer, Geoff (2019) Out-of-grade sawn pine: a state-of-the-art review on challenges and new opportunities in cross laminated timber (CLT). Construction and Building Materials, 211. pp. 858-868. ISSN 0950-0618


Abstract

Plantation softwood is the future timber material resource for building and construction. However, significant volumes of sawn softwood are considered out-of-grade and sold at a loss. New approaches and methods need to be implemented to value-add out-of-grade timber and increase structural yield from existing plantations. This paper provides a critical review of out-of-grade characteristics of pine timber to gain an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of this resource as a structural building material. Methods to incorporate out-of-grade timber into current building systems are presented and building technologies that can facilitate this use are identified. Finally, it discusses developments and important considerations for design of cross laminated timber (CLT) as a prime example of a building system with good capacity to incorporate high volumes of out-of-grade timber. This provides critical information for the maximum utilisation of sawn out-of-grade pine and is anticipated to create new opportunities that can effectively incorporate this renewable and sustainable material resource into innovative building systems and technologies.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Submitted version deposited accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Advanced Engineering and Space Sciences - Centre for Future Materials (1 Jan 2017 -)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Advanced Engineering and Space Sciences - Centre for Future Materials (1 Jan 2017 -)
Date Deposited: 18 Feb 2020 23:52
Last Modified: 24 Feb 2020 01:30
Uncontrolled Keywords: out-of-grade timber; low grade timber; cross laminated timber; CLT; timber defects; building technology; building systems
Fields of Research : 09 Engineering > 0912 Materials Engineering > 091210 Timber, Pulp and Paper
09 Engineering > 0905 Civil Engineering > 090503 Construction Materials
09 Engineering > 0905 Civil Engineering > 090502 Construction Engineering
Identification Number or DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.03.293
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/37200

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