Microwave technique for liquid water detection in icing applications

Leis, John and Buttsworth, David and Saeed, Ramiz and Saleh, Khalid and McGilvray, Matthew and Gillespie, David (2019) Microwave technique for liquid water detection in icing applications. In: 2019 International Conference on Icing of Aircraft, Engines, and Structures, 17-21 June 2019, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

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The partial melting of ingested ice crystals can lead to ice accretion in aircraft compressors, but accurately measuring the relatively small fraction of liquid water content in such flows is challenging. Probe-based methods for detecting liquid water content are not suitable for deployment within turbofan engines, and thus alternatives are sought. Recent research has described approaches based on passive microwave sensing. We present here an approach based on active microwave transmission and reflection, employing a vector network analyzer. Utilization of both transmission and reflection provides additional data over and above emission or transmission only, and permits a more controllable environment than passive sensing approaches. The paper specifically addresses the question of whether such an approach is viable within the context of representative icing wind tunnel and engine flow conditions. A quasi-thermal equilibrium approach is presented herein to estimate the melting ratio during microwave analysis of samples at 0 °C. Experimental results using microwaves in the 2.45GHz region are presented, and post-processing methods investigated. This is followed by an investigation of detection limits for ice accretion in the sub-gram range. The results indicate the potential of the technique, with a number of avenues evident for further research.

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Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Commonwealth Reporting Category E) (Paper)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Accepted version deposited in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. SAE technical paper manuscript (19ICE-0066 - Development of a Microwave Technique for Measurement of Liquid Water Content in Ice Crystal Icing Experiments) has been approved for publication in conjunction with session ICE202 - Test Facilities: Icing Wind Tunnel Instrumentation.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering (1 Jul 2013 -)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering (1 Jul 2013 -)
Date Deposited: 27 Jun 2019 05:42
Last Modified: 08 May 2020 02:28
Uncontrolled Keywords: aircraft icing, microwave instrumentation
Fields of Research (2008): 09 Engineering > 0901 Aerospace Engineering > 090101 Aerodynamics (excl. Hypersonic Aerodynamics)
09 Engineering > 0906 Electrical and Electronic Engineering > 090603 Industrial Electronics
09 Engineering > 0901 Aerospace Engineering > 090105 Avionics
09 Engineering > 0913 Mechanical Engineering > 091302 Automation and Control Engineering
09 Engineering > 0901 Aerospace Engineering > 090104 Aircraft Performance and Flight Control Systems
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): B Economic Development > 88 Transport > 8803 Aerospace Transport > 880303 Air Safety
E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970110 Expanding Knowledge in Technology
Identification Number or DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1930
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/36599

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