A plant-wide aqueous phase chemistry module describing pH variations and ion speciation/pairing in wastewater treatment process models

Flores-Alsina, Xavier and Kazadi Mbamba, Christian and Solon, Kimberley and Vrecko, Darko and Tait, Stephan and Batstone, Damien J. and Jeppsson, Ulf and Gernaey, Krist V. (2015) A plant-wide aqueous phase chemistry module describing pH variations and ion speciation/pairing in wastewater treatment process models. Water Research, 85. pp. 255-265. ISSN 0043-1354

Abstract

There is a growing interest within the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) modelling community to correctly describe physico–chemical processes after many years of mainly focusing on biokinetics. Indeed, future modelling needs, such as a plant-wide phosphorus (P) description, require a major, but unavoidable, additional degree of complexity when representing cationic/anionic behaviour in Activated Sludge (AS)/Anaerobic Digestion (AD) systems. In this paper, a plant-wide aqueous phase chemistry module describing pH variations plus ion speciation/pairing is presented and interfaced with industry standard models. The module accounts for extensive consideration of non-ideality, including ion activities instead of molar concentrations and complex ion pairing. The general equilibria are formulated as a set of Differential Algebraic Equations (DAEs) instead of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) in order to reduce the overall stiffness of the system, thereby enhancing simulation speed. Additionally, a multi-dimensional version of the Newton–Raphson algorithm is applied to handle the existing multiple algebraic inter-dependencies. The latter is reinforced with the Simulated Annealing method to increase the robustness of the solver making the system not so dependant of the initial conditions. Simulation results show pH predictions when describing Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d and 3 comparing the performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) treatment plant configuration under different anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic conditions. The same framework is implemented in the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) version of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) (WWTP3) as well, predicting pH values at different cationic/anionic loads. In this way, the general applicability/flexibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated, by implementing the aqueous phase chemistry module in some of the most frequently used WWTP process simulation models. Finally, it is shown how traditional wastewater modelling studies can be complemented with a rigorous description of aqueous phase and ion chemistry (pH, speciation, complexation).


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Files associated with this item cannot be displayed due to copyright restrictions.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Civil Engineering and Surveying
Date Deposited: 13 May 2019 03:07
Last Modified: 30 May 2019 02:24
Uncontrolled Keywords: activity correction, ionic strength, ionic behaviour, dynamic pH prediction, multi-dimensional Newton Raphson, simulated annealing, physico–chemical modelling, water chemistry
Fields of Research : 09 Engineering > 0907 Environmental Engineering > 090703 Environmental Technologies
Identification Number or DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2015.07.014
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/36233

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