Militarisation, energy consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Myanmar

Ahmed, Shakoor and Alam, Khorshed and Rashid, Afzalur and Gow, Jeff (2019) Militarisation, energy consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Myanmar. Defence and Peace Economics. pp. 1-27. ISSN 1024-2694


The cointegration and causal relationships amongst militarisation, energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and economic growth in Myanmar are investigated for the period of 1975–2014. Myanmar was governed by a military regime until 2011 with high levels of military expenditure. This study adopted an extended neoclassical production function framework utilising the autoregressive distributed lag approach to investigate the causal relationships. Estimation showed that a 1% increase in military expenditure led to a 0.63% decrease in GDP, whereas a 1% increase in energy consumption increased GDP by 4% in the long run. The bootstrap-corrected causality test located bidirectional causality between energy consumption and CO2 emissions and unidirectional causality running from economic growth to energy consumption. Policy recommendations promoting Myanmar’s economic growth include reducing military spending which would contribute to a reduction in CO2 emissions and encourage efficient energy consumption.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Permanent restricted access to ArticleFirst version, in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Faculty of Business, Education, Law and Arts - School of Commerce
Date Deposited: 22 Aug 2019 03:39
Last Modified: 10 Sep 2019 04:26
Uncontrolled Keywords: bootstrap-corrected causality; CO2 emissions; economic growth; energy consumption; militarisation; Myanmar
Fields of Research : 09 Engineering > 0913 Mechanical Engineering > 091305 Energy Generation, Conversion and Storage Engineering
14 Economics > 1402 Applied Economics > 140202 Economic Development and Growth
14 Economics > 1403 Econometrics > 140305 Time-Series Analysis
Socio-Economic Objective: D Environment > 96 Environment > 9603 Climate and Climate Change > 960303 Climate Change Models
B Economic Development > 85 Energy > 8599 Other Energy > 859999 Energy not elsewhere classified
Identification Number or DOI: 10.1080/10242694.2018.1560566

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