The theory of planned behavior to predict protective behavioral intentions against PM2.5 in Parents of young children from urban and rural Beijing, China

Liu, Shumei and Chiang, Yi-Te and Tseng, Chie-Chien and Ng, Eric and Yeh, Gwo-Liang and Fang, Wei-Ta (2018) The theory of planned behavior to predict protective behavioral intentions against PM2.5 in Parents of young children from urban and rural Beijing, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15 (10 - Article 2215). ISSN 1661-7827

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Smog and air pollution have fast become significant environmental problems, and are attributed to rapid global industrialization and urbanization. Emissions of fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) increase smog and air pollution, with strong impacts on human health. Children are particularly vulnerable. While increasing studies are being conducted on the behaviors leading to PM2.5 toxicity from the perspective of environmental toxicants, there is a lack of research on factors influencing anti-PM2.5 behavioral intentions. Thus, this study aims to narrow this gap by adapting the theory of planned behavior framework to investigate the effects of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control on protective behavioral intentions against PM2.5. In total, 1277 online questionnaires were collected from parents of young children living in urban and rural areas of Beijing, and the data was analyzed using correlation, regression, and path analyses. Results revealed that there were significant differences between parents from urban and rural areas in terms of attitude (t = 4.727 > 1.96, p < 0.001), subjective norms (t = 5.529 > 1.96, p < 0.001), perceived behavioral control (t = 6.155 > 1.96, p < 0.001), and anti-PM2.5 behavioral intentions (t = 6.838 > 1.96, p < 0.001). Path analysis revealed that parents from urban and rural areas had different behavioral intention paths. For urban parents, the findings indicated that subjective norms (β = 0.73, t = 21.84 > 3.29) and perceived behavioral control (γ = 0.22, t = 6.12 > 3.29) had direct impacts on anti-PM2.5 behavioral intentions. In contrast, the attitudes (γ = 0.39, t = 3.74 > 3.29) and subjective norms (β = 0.60, t = 8.55 > 3.29) of rural parents were found to directly influence anti-PM2.5 behavioral intentions.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Faculty of Business, Education, Law and Arts - School of Management and Enterprise
Date Deposited: 11 Feb 2019 03:22
Last Modified: 11 Feb 2019 04:48
Uncontrolled Keywords: theory of planned behavior; anti-PM2.5 behavioral intention; young children’s parents; rural and urban areas
Fields of Research : 15 Commerce, Management, Tourism and Services > 1505 Marketing > 150599 Marketing not elsewhere classified
05 Environmental Sciences > 0502 Environmental Science and Management > 050299 Environmental Science and Management not elsewhere classified
Socio-Economic Objective: E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970105 Expanding Knowledge in the Environmental Sciences
E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970115 Expanding Knowledge in Commerce, Management, Tourism and Services
Identification Number or DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15102215

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