The gut-brain axis, the human gut microbiota and their integration in the development of obesity

Bliss, Edward S. and Whiteside, Eliza (2018) The gut-brain axis, the human gut microbiota and their integration in the development of obesity. Frontiers in Physiology, 9 (Article 900). pp. 1-27.

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Obesity is a global epidemic, placing socioeconomic strain on public healthcare systems, especially within the so-called Western countries, such as Australia, United States, United Kingdom, and Canada. Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, where energy intake exceeds expenditure. Current non-invasive treatments lack efficacy in combating obesity, suggesting that obesity is a multi-faceted and more complex disease than previously thought. This has led to an increase in research exploring energy homeostasis and the discovery of a complex bidirectional communication axis referred to as the gut-brain axis. The gut-brain axis is comprised of various neurohumoral components that allow the gut and brain to communicate with each other. Communication occurs within the axis via local, paracrine and/or endocrine mechanisms involving a variety of gut-derived peptides produced from enteroendocrine cells (EECs), including glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY3−36 (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and oxyntomodulin. Neural networks, such as the enteric nervous system (ENS) and vagus nerve also convey information within the gut-brain axis. Emerging evidence suggests the human gut microbiota, a complex ecosystem residing in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), may influence weight-gain through several inter-dependent pathways including energy harvesting, short-chain fatty-acids (SCFA) signalling, behaviour modifications, controlling satiety and modulating inflammatory responses within the host. Hence, the gut-brain axis, the microbiota and the link between these elements and the role each plays in either promoting or regulating energy and thereby contributing to obesity will be explored in this review.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Copyright © 2018 Bliss and Whiteside. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Health and Wellbeing
Date Deposited: 31 Aug 2018 00:04
Last Modified: 21 Sep 2018 05:05
Uncontrolled Keywords: gut-brain axis, microbiota, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), peptide YY3−36 (PYY), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), obesity, short-chain fatty-acids (SCFA)
Fields of Research : 11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1116 Medical Physiology > 111699 Medical Physiology not elsewhere classified
Identification Number or DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00900

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