Beetroot and sodium nitrate ameliorate cardiometabolic changes in diet-induced obese hypertensive rats

Bhaswant, Maharshi and Brown, Lindsay and McAinch, Andrew J. and Mathai, Michael L. (2017) Beetroot and sodium nitrate ameliorate cardiometabolic changes in diet-induced obese hypertensive rats. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 61 (12). pp. 1-10. ISSN 1613-4125

Abstract

SCOPE:
Dietary intake of beetroot by humans reduces blood pressure but whether this is caused by nitrate or betanin is not well-defined; neither are effects on other signs of metabolic syndrome.

METHODS AND RESULTS:
Rats fed a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H) for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, altered cardiovascular and liver structure and function, and impaired glucose tolerance compared to rats fed a corn starch diet (C). H rats treated with ∼16 mg/kg/day of nitrate either from beetroot juice (H+B) or sodium nitrate (H+N) for the last 8 weeks reduced systolic blood pressure by ∼25 mmHg, improved cardiac structure and function, plasma lipid profile and plasma markers of liver function, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in heart and liver and decreased left ventricular fibrosis. In the left ventricle, H rats increased mRNA expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-alpha (AMPK-α) and decreased mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α); both beetroot and sodium nitrate diet-fed rats decreased CTGF threefold, MCP-1, and MMP-2 twofold, and doubled PPAR-α mRNA expression in left ventricular tissue.

CONCLUSION:
The similar functional and molecular responses to beetroot and sodium nitrate indicate that the nitrate content of beetroot reduced inflammation and improved cardiovascular, liver, and metabolic function in rats with metabolic syndrome, rather than betanin.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Restricted access to published version in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty / Department / School: Current - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Health and Wellbeing
Date Deposited: 09 May 2018 04:58
Last Modified: 10 May 2018 02:40
Uncontrolled Keywords: beetroot; cardiovascular complications; metabolic syndrome; sodium nitrate
Fields of Research : 11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1111 Nutrition and Dietetics > 111103 Nutritional Physiology
11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1115 Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences > 111501 Basic Pharmacology
Socio-Economic Objective: E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
Identification Number or DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201700478
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/34073

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