Manipulating the phytic acid content of rice grain toward improving micronutrient bioavailability

Perera, Ishara and Seneweera, Saman and Hirotsu, Naoki (2018) Manipulating the phytic acid content of rice grain toward improving micronutrient bioavailability. Rice, 11 (4). pp. 1-13. ISSN 1939-8425

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Myo-inositol hexaphosphate, also known as phytic acid (PA), is the most abundant storage form of phosphorus in seeds. PA acts as a strong chelator of metal cations to form phytate and is considered an anti-nutrient as it reduces the bioavailability of important micronutrients. Although the major nutrient source for more than one-half of the global population, rice is a poor source of essential micronutrients. Therefore, biofortification and reducing the PA content of rice have arisen as new strategies for increasing micronutrient bioavailability in rice. Furthermore, global climate change effects, particularly rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, are expected to increase the PA content and reduce the concentrations of most of the essential micronutrients in rice grain. Several genes involved in PA biosynthesis have been identified and characterized in rice. Proper understanding of the genes related to PA accumulation during seed development and creating the means to suppress the expression of these genes should provide a foundation for manipulating the PA content in rice grain. Low-PA rice mutants have been developed that have a significantly lower grain PA content, but these mutants also had reduced yields and poor agronomic performance, traits that challenge their effective use in breeding programs. Nevertheless, transgenic technology has been effective in developing low-PA rice without hampering plant growth or seed development. Moreover, manipulating the micronutrient distribution in rice grain, enhancing micronutrient levels and reducing the PA content in endosperm are possible strategies for increasing mineral bioavailability. Therefore, a holistic breeding approach is essential for developing successful low-PA rice lines. In this review, we focus on the key determinants for PA concentration in rice grain and discuss the possible molecular methods and approaches for manipulating the PA content to increase micronutrient bioavailability.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: © The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Perera et al. Rice (2018) 11:4 DOI 10.1186/s12284-018-0200-y
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Institute for Life Sciences and the Environment - Centre for Crop Health
Date Deposited: 27 Mar 2018 05:22
Last Modified: 15 May 2018 01:09
Uncontrolled Keywords: bioavailability; biosynthesis; gene; phytic acid; rice
Fields of Research : 07 Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences > 0703 Crop and Pasture Production > 070303 Crop and Pasture Biochemistry and Physiology
Socio-Economic Objective: B Economic Development > 82 Plant Production and Plant Primary Products > 8204 Summer Grains and Oilseeds > 820402 Rice
Identification Number or DOI: 10.1186/s12284-018-0200-y

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