The role of diet, capsaicin and TRPV6 expression in the prostate gland

Hadzi, Katelynn (2017) The role of diet, capsaicin and TRPV6 expression in the prostate gland. Honours thesis, University of Southern Queensland. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men worldwide, however the prevalence in developed countries is significantly higher than in developing countries. In Australia prostate cancer is expected to be the most common cancer diagnosed in 2017, as one in five men are at risk of developing prostate cancer before 85 years of age. While the five year survival for prostate cancer is at 95%, men in rural or regional areas have a 20% lower survival rate than those residing in the major cities. The high rate of diagnosis in developed countries, including Australia, has been linked to lifestyle, specifically diet. The so-called Western diet is typically high in refined carbohydrates, fat and red meat and this diet has been shown to cause inflammation in various tissues. Inflammation in the prostate gland has been linked to the development of precancerous states and eventually cancer. Furthermore, alterations in gene expression pathways in the prostate in response to the inflammatory state are also associated with cancer progression. Capsaicin, a dietary phytochemical from chilli, has been shown to have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The effectiveness of capsaicin dietary supplementation in preventing or reducing the inflammation and cancer-causing gene expression changes induced by a high carbohydrate and high fat diet has not been explored in the prostate gland. If effective, this may represent an inexpensive mechanism for men, living in both cities and in regional areas to decrease their risk of developing prostate cancer by supplementing their diet with capsaicin.
This study investigated the effect of a Western diet and the addition of capsaicin to the diet on gene expression in tumourigenic and inflammatory pathways. In response to the diet the expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (TRPV6), a gene associated with cancer, was significantly increased, a response that was prevented in the capsaicin treated rats receiving the same diet. Additionally, the histomorphology of the prostate demonstrated early abnormal cellular changes, with increased epithelial cell height and reduced glandular infolding.
These results suggests that after the treatment period the Western diet has induced molecular and cellular changes resulting in early alterations in cell function and appearance. The prevention of the increased expression of TRPV6, suggests that the addition of capsaicin to the diet may be able to prevent changes associated with tumourigenesis. Further exploration into the effects of capsaicin in the prostate and the ability to prevent pre-cancerous stages are recommended.


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Item Type: Thesis (Non-Research) (Honours)
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Bachelor of Science (Honours) - Biology major.
Faculty / Department / School: Current - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Health and Wellbeing
Supervisors: Whiteside, Eliza; Panchal, Sunil
Date Deposited: 21 Feb 2018 05:52
Last Modified: 22 Feb 2018 01:42
Uncontrolled Keywords: prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, proliferative inflammatory atrophy, androgen receptor, Western diet, inflammation, capsaicin
Fields of Research : 11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1112 Oncology and Carcinogenesis > 111207 Molecular Targets
11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1111 Nutrition and Dietetics > 111199 Nutrition and Dietetics not elsewhere classified
Socio-Economic Objective: C Society > 92 Health > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920102 Cancer and Related Disorders
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/33743

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