Capsaicin in attenuating metabolic syndrome

Bliss, Edward Spencer (2017) Capsaicin in attenuating metabolic syndrome. Honours thesis, University of Southern Queensland. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

Capsaicin, the primary active constituent of chilli, has recognised potential health benefits including analgesia but has also been investigated in studies focusing on obesity, hypertension, glucose impairment and altered blood lipid profiles. These physiological changes are the clustering of risk factors comprising the metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of developing diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease. Current clinical treatments demonstrate poor compliance and do not target the range of risk factors. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine whether low-dose dietary capsaicin attenuates the cardiovascular, liver and metabolic changes in a diet-induced rat model that mimics the human syndrome. Firstly, capsaicin was extracted from Capsicum annum cultivars with a yield of 1.42%. The extract contained an estimated ratio of 86% capsaicin and 14% dihydrocapsaicin by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Secondly, 8-9 weeks old normotensive male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n=8-12). Two groups were fed a cornstarch (C) diet and two were fed a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet, rich in saturated and trans fatty acids and simple sugars, thus mimicking the westernised-diet in humans. One group of each of the two diets was supplemented with dietary capsaicin (CC and HC; 13.3 and 7.3 mg/kg body weight/day) as a treatment for the final 8 weeks of the 16 week protocol. The H diet induced obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, cardiovascular and liver damage and glucose intolerance by week 8 of the protocol. HC rats showed reduced abdominal circumference (24.3±0.5 cm to 19.0±0.2 cm), body weight gain (276±36 g to 186±9 g) and plasma concentrations of triglycerides (2.1±0.2 mmol/L to 1.4±0.2 mmol/L) compared to H rats. Capsaicin treatment reduced inflammation within the heart and liver, reduced cardiac collagen deposition and decreased liver fat vacuole enlargement. This decreased ventricular stiffness and reversed liver damage in HC rats. Endothelial dysfunction and hypertension were normalised in HC rats, following a decrease in systolic blood pressure (153±2 mmHg to 132±2 mmHg). Finally, low-dose dietary capsaicin reversed glucose intolerance in H-fed rats. Hence, the present findings suggest that low-dose dietary capsaicin could be a potential therapeutic option for the reversal of obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans.


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Item Type: Thesis (Non-Research) (Honours)
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Bachelor of Science (Honours) - Biology major.
Faculty / Department / School: Current - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Health and Wellbeing
Supervisors: Brown, Lindsay; Panchal, Sunil
Date Deposited: 01 Mar 2018 05:22
Last Modified: 01 Mar 2018 05:22
Uncontrolled Keywords: capsaicin; transient receptor potential vanilloid 1(TRPV1); metabolic syndrome; cardivascular; obesity; glucose; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Fields of Research : 11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1111 Nutrition and Dietetics > 111103 Nutritional Physiology
Socio-Economic Objective: E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/33742

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