The impact of strength level on adaptations to combined weightlifting, plyometric and ballistic training

James, L. P. and Haff, G. Gregory and Kelly, V. G. and Connick, M. J. and Hoffman, B. W. and Beckman, E. M. (2018) The impact of strength level on adaptations to combined weightlifting, plyometric and ballistic training. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 28 (5). pp. 1494-1505. ISSN 0905-7188

Abstract

The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the magnitude of adaptation to integrated ballistic training is influenced by initial strength level. Such information is needed to inform resistance training guidelines for both higher- and lower-level athlete populations. To this end, two groups of distinctly different strength levels (stronger: one-repetition-maximum (1RM) squat = 2.01 ± 0.15 kg.BM−1; weaker: 1.20 ± 0.20 kg.BM−1) completed 10 weeks of resistance training incorporating weightlifting derivatives, plyometric actions and ballistic exercises. Testing occurred at pre-, mid- and post-training. Measures included variables derived from the incremental-load jump squat and the 1RM squat, alongside muscle activity (electromyography), and jump mechanics (force-time comparisons throughout the entire movement). The primary outcome variable was peak velocity derived from the unloaded jump squat. It was revealed that the stronger group displayed a greater (P = 0.05) change in peak velocity at midtest (baseline: 2.65±0.10 m∙s−1, midtest: 2.80±0.17 m∙s−1) but not posttest (2.85±0.18 m∙s−1) when compared to the weaker participants (baseline 2.48 ±0.09, midtest. 2.47 ±0.11, posttest: 2.61 ±0.10 m∙s−1). Different changes occurred between groups in the force-velocity relationship (P=0.001–0.04) and jump mechanics (P≤0.05), while only the stronger group displayed increases in muscle activation (P=0.05). In conclusion, the magnitude of improvement in peak velocity was significantly influenced by pre-existing strength level in the early stage of training. Changes in the mechanisms underpinning performance were less distinct.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Accepted version embargoed until 1 June 2019 (12 months), in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty / Department / School: Current - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Health and Wellbeing
Date Deposited: 01 Feb 2018 05:14
Last Modified: 14 May 2018 00:05
Uncontrolled Keywords: electromyography, jump squat, resistance training, athletic performance, neuromuscular, power
Fields of Research : 11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1106 Human Movement and Sports Science > 110602 Exercise Physiology
11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1106 Human Movement and Sports Science > 110601 Biomechanics
Identification Number or DOI: 10.1111/sms.13045
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/33628

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