Individual, country and societal cluster differences on measures of personality, attitudes, values, and social norms

Stankov, Lazar (2011) Individual, country and societal cluster differences on measures of personality, attitudes, values, and social norms. Learning and Individual Differences, 21 (1). pp. 55-66. ISSN 1041-6080


This study investigated cross-cultural differences on 38 subscales from 4 major domains-personality, social attitudes, values, and social norms. These scales were administered to participants who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language™ (TOEFL®, N=1,600) and U.S. college students (N=429). Total variability of each subscale was split into individual, country (45), and societal cluster (9 world regions) components using hierarchical linear modeling procedures. Individual variability accounted for between 67.69% and 96.43%, and country and societal clusters accounted for, on average, 11% of the total variance. Furthermore, cross-cultural effects attributable to country and societal clusters were less pronounced on measures of personality and values than they were on measures of social attitudes and social norms. A composite representing the conservatism dimension showed pronounced cultural differences (25% of total variance), and the pattern of means revealed that Europeans hold more liberal attitudes, values, and beliefs than people from other world regions.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Published version cannot be displayed due to copyright restrictions.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: No Faculty
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: No Faculty
Date Deposited: 04 Aug 2017 03:16
Last Modified: 04 Aug 2017 03:17
Uncontrolled Keywords: cross-cultural differences; HLM analysis; personality; social attitudes; social norms
Fields of Research (2008): 17 Psychology and Cognitive Sciences > 1701 Psychology > 170109 Personality, Abilities and Assessment
Fields of Research (2020): 52 PSYCHOLOGY > 5299 Other psychology > 529999 Other psychology not elsewhere classified
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970117 Expanding Knowledge in Psychology and Cognitive Sciences
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