Can we save large carnivores without losing large carnivore science?

Allen, Benjamin L. and Allen, Lee R. and Andren, Henrik and Ballard, Guy and Boitani, Luigi and Engeman, Richard M. and Fleming, Peter J. S. and Ford, Adam T. and Haswell, Peter M. and Kowalczyk, Rafal and Linnell, John D. C. and Mech, L. David and Parker, Daniel M. (2017) Can we save large carnivores without losing large carnivore science? Food Webs, 12. pp. 64-75.

Abstract

Large carnivores are depicted to shape entire ecosystems through top-down processes. Studies describing these processes are often used to support interventionist wildlife management practices, including carnivore reintroduction or lethal control programs. Unfortunately, there is an increasing tendency to ignore, disregard or devalue fundamental principles of the scientific method when communicating the reliability of current evidence for the
ecological roles that large carnivores may play, eroding public confidence in large carnivore science and scientists. Here, we discuss six interrelated issues that currently undermine the reliability of the available literature on the ecological roles of large carnivores: (1) the overall paucity of available data, (2) reliability of carnivore population sampling techniques, (3) general disregard for alternative hypotheses to top-down forcing, (4) lack of applied science studies, (5) frequent use of logical fallacies, and (6) generalisation of results from relatively pristine systems to those substantially altered by humans.We first describe how widespread these issues are, and given this, show, for example, that evidence for the roles of wolves (Canis lupus) and dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) initiating trophic cascades is not as strong as is often claimed. Managers and policy makers should exercise caution when relying on this literature to inform wildlife management decisions. We emphasise the value of manipulative experiments and discuss the role of scientific knowledge in the decision-making process. We hope that the issues we raise here prompt deeper consideration of actual evidence, leading towards an improvement in both the rigour and communication of large carnivore science.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Published online 2017. Permanent restricted access to ArticleFirst version in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty / Department / School: Current - Institute for Agriculture and the Environment
Date Deposited: 13 Nov 2017 03:53
Last Modified: 13 Nov 2017 03:56
Uncontrolled Keywords: adaptive management; apex predator; behaviourally-mediated trophic cascades; experimental design; mosopredator release hypothesis
Fields of Research : 05 Environmental Sciences > 0502 Environmental Science and Management > 050202 Conservation and Biodiversity
Socio-Economic Objective: D Environment > 96 Environment > 9608 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity > 960805 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity at Regional or Larger Scales
Identification Number or DOI: 10.1016/j.fooweb.2017.02.008
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/32715

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