197 candidates and 104 validated planets in K2's first five fields

Crossfield, Ian J. and Ciardi, David R. and Petigura, Erik A. and Sinukoff, Evan and Schlieder, Joshua E. and Howard, Andrew W. and Beichman, Charles A. and Isaacson, Howard and Dressing, Courtney D. and Christiansen, Jessie L. and Fulton, Benjamin J. and Lepine, Sebastien and Weiss, Lauren and Hirsch, Lea and Livingston, John and Baranec, Christoph and Law, Nicholas M. and Riddle, Reed and Ziegler, Carl and Howell, Steve B. and Horch, Elliott and Everett, Mark and Teske, Johanna and Martinez, Arturo O. and Obermeier, Christian and Benneke, Bjorn and Scott, Nic and Deacon, Niall and Aller, Kimberly M. and Hansen, Brad M. S. and Mancini, Luigi and Ciceri, Simona and Brahm, Rafael and Jordan, Andres and Knutson, Heather A. and Henning, Thomas and Bonnefoy, Michael and Liu, Michael C. and Crepp, Justin R. and Lothringer, Joshua and Hinz, Phil and Bailey, Vanessa and Skemer, Andrew and Defrere, Denis (2016) 197 candidates and 104 validated planets in K2's first five fields. The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 226 (1 (Article 7)). pp. 1-20. ISSN 0067-0049

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Abstract

We present 197 planet candidates discovered using data from the first year of the NASA K2 mission (Campaigns 0-4), along with the results of an intensive program of photometric analyses, stellar spectroscopy, high-resolution imaging, and statistical validation. We distill these candidates into sets of 104 validated planets (57 in multi-planet systems), false positives, and 63 remaining candidates. Our validated systems span a range of properties, with median values of RP= 2.3 R⊕, P = 8.6 days, Teff = 5300 K, and Kp = 12.7mag. Stellar spectroscopy provides precise stellar and planetary parameters for most of these systems. We show that K2 has increased by 30% the number of small planets known to orbit moderately bright stars (1-4 R R⊕, Kp = 9-13 mag). Of particular interest are planets smaller than 2 R⊕, orbiting stars brighter than Kp = 11.5 mag, 5 receiving Earth-like irradiation levels, and several multi-planet systems - including 4 planets orbiting the M dwarf K2-72 near mean-motion resonances. By quantifying the likelihood that each candidate is a planet we demonstrate that our candidate sample has an overall false positive rate of 15%-30%, with rates substantially lower for small candidates (<2R⊕) and larger for candidates with radii >8 R⊕ and/or with P<3 days. Extrapolation of the current planetary yield suggests that K2 will discover between 500 and 1000 planets in its planned four-year mission, assuming sufficient follow-up resources are available. Efficient observing and analysis, together with an organized and coherent follow-up strategy, are essential for maximizing the efficacy of planet-validation efforts for K2, TESS, and future large-scale surveys.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Access to published version in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty / Department / School: No Faculty
Date Deposited: 26 May 2017 05:13
Last Modified: 03 Oct 2017 05:04
Uncontrolled Keywords: catalogs; planets and satellites: fundamental parameters; planets and satellites: general; techniques: high angular resolution; techniques: photometric; techniques: spectroscopic
Fields of Research : 02 Physical Sciences > 0201 Astronomical and Space Sciences > 020104 Galactic Astronomy
Identification Number or DOI: 10.3847/0067-0049/226/1/7
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/32436

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