Kinematic adjustments in the basketball free throw performed with a reduced hoop diameter rim

Khlifa, Riadh and Aouadi, Ridha and Hermassi, Souhail and Chelly, Mohamed and Jlid, Chedly and Gabbett, Tim (2012) Kinematic adjustments in the basketball free throw performed with a reduced hoop diameter rim. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 7 (2). pp. 371-381. ISSN 1747-9541


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of free throw shooting with a reduced diameter rim (diameter 0.35 m) upon the kinematics of basketball free throws. Ten basketball players (mean ± SD age 17.1 ± 0.7 years, height 1.85 ± 0.23 m, body mass 78.8 ± 5.8 kg) performed 8 clean successful free throws; 4 in a standard rim (diameter = 0.45 m), and 4 in a reduced diameter rim (diameter = 0.35 m). Ball release angle, ball release speed, ball release height and angles at release in elbow, shoulder, trunk, knee and ankle joints were determined for each subject. Statistical analysis showed significant increases in ball release angle, in ball release speed, in shoulder joint angle at release (p < 0.0001) and in ball release height (p < 0.01) when shooting in a reduced diameter rim. There were no other significant differences (p > 0.05) in any other determined parameter between the standard and reduced rim conditions. The increase of the minimum entry angle of the ball through the rim, caused by the 0.10 m reduction in diameter of the standard rim, resulted in subjects performing clean successful free throws with higher release angles and consequently with higher release speeds. The reduced hoop diameter rim can be used as an aid in training of young basketball players. Specifically, this constraint may act to increase ball release angle in basketball players with low percentage of successful free throws and when the principal cause of decreased free throws accuracy is due to a shot technique with low release angle.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Published version cannot be displayed due to copyright restrictions.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: No Faculty
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: No Faculty
Date Deposited: 26 May 2017 01:47
Last Modified: 26 May 2017 01:47
Uncontrolled Keywords: ball release angle; basketball free throw; equipment modification; shooting accuracy
Fields of Research (2008): 11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1106 Human Movement and Sports Science > 110699 Human Movement and Sports Science not elsewhere classified
Fields of Research (2020): 42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4207 Sports science and exercise > 420799 Sports science and exercise not elsewhere classified
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): C Society > 92 Health > 9299 Other Health > 929999 Health not elsewhere classified
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