Characteristics of planetary candidates observed by Kepler. II. Analysis of the first four months of data

Borucki, William J. and Koch, David G. and Bryson, Stephen T. and Lissauer, Jack J. and Rowe, Jason and Haas, Michael and Basri, Gibor and Marcy, Geoffrey W. and Howard, Andrew and Isaacson, Howard and Walkowicz, Lucianne and Batalha, Natalie and Brown, Timothy M. and Shporer, Avi and Caldwell, Douglas and DeVore, Edna and Jenkins, Jon M. and Doyle, Laurance and Tarter, Jill and Christiansen, Jessie L. and Clarke, Bruce D. and Li, Jie and MacHalek, Pavel and Quintana, Elisa V. and Tenenbaum, Peter and Twicken, Joseph D. and Van Cleve, Jeffrey and Still, Martin and Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen and Kjeldsen, Hans and Cochran, William D. and Endl, Michael and MacQueen, Phillip and Dunham, Edward W. and Gautier, Thomas N. and Geary, John C. and Latham, David W. and Sasselov, Dimitar and Charbonneau, David and Dupree, Andrea K. and Holman, Matthew J. and Buchhave, Lars A. and Desert, Jean Michel and Fressin, Francois and Meibom, Søren and Quinn, Samuel N. and Ragozzine, Darin and Torres, Guillermo and Gilliland, Ronald and Gould, Alan and Howell, Steve B. and Sherry, William and Boss, Alan and Ciardi, David and Ford, Eric B. and Fortney, Jonathan and Fabrycky, Daniel and Seager, Sara and Steffen, Jason H. and Welsh, William F. and Allen, Christopher and Witteborn, Fred C. and Das, Santanu and Horch, Elliott and Kolodziejczak, Jeffery and Kulesa, Craig and McCarthy, Donald and Lucas, Philip W. and Miquel, Thibaut and Prsa, Andrej (2011) Characteristics of planetary candidates observed by Kepler. II. Analysis of the first four months of data. The Astrophysical Journal, 736 (1). ISSN 0004-637X

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On 2011 February 1 the Kepler mission released data for 156,453 stars observed from the beginning of the science observations on 2009 May 2 through September 16. There are 1235 planetary candidates with transit-like signatures detected in this period. These are associated with 997 host stars. Distributions of the characteristics of the planetary candidates are separated into five class sizes: 68 candidates of approximately Earth-size (Rp < 1.25 R⊕), 288 super-Earth-size (1.25 R⊕ ≤ R p < 2 R⊕), 662 Neptune-size (2 R ⊕ ≤ Rp < 6 R⊕), 165 Jupiter-size (6 R⊕ ≤ Rp < 15 R ⊕), and 19 up to twice the size of Jupiter (15 R ⊕ ≤ Rp < 22 R⊕). In the temperature range appropriate for the habitable zone, 54 candidates are found with sizes ranging from Earth-size to larger than that of Jupiter. Six are less than twice the size of the Earth. Over 74% of the planetary candidates are smaller than Neptune. The observed number versus size distribution of planetary candidates increases to a peak at two to three times the Earth-size and then declines inversely proportional to the area of the candidate. Our current best estimates of the intrinsic frequencies of planetary candidates, after correcting for geometric and sensitivity biases, are 5% for Earth-size candidates, 8% for super-Earth-size candidates, 18% for Neptune-size candidates, 2% for Jupiter-size candidates, and 0.1% for very large candidates; a total of 0.34 candidates per star. Multi-candidate, transiting systems are frequent; 17% of the host stars have multi-candidate systems, and 34% of all the candidates are part of multi-candidate systems.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Access to published version in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty / Department / School: No Faculty
Date Deposited: 06 Jun 2017 03:43
Last Modified: 17 Aug 2017 05:21
Uncontrolled Keywords: planetary systems; planets and satellites: detection; stars: statistics; surveys;
Fields of Research : 02 Physical Sciences > 0201 Astronomical and Space Sciences > 020110 Stellar Astronomy and Planetary Systems
Socio-Economic Objective: E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970102 Expanding Knowledge in the Physical Sciences
Identification Number or DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/736/1/19

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