Almost all of Kepler's multiple-planet candidates are planets

Lissauer, Jack J. and Marcy, Geoffrey W. and Rowe, Jason F. and Bryson, Stephen T. and Adams, Elisabeth and Buchhave, Lars A. and Ciardi, David R. and Cochran, William D. and Fabrycky, Daniel C. and Ford, Eric B. and Fressin, Francois and Geary, John and Gilliland, Ronald L. and Holman, Matthew J. and Howell, Steve B. and Jenkins, Jon M. and Kinemuchi, Karen and Koch, David G. and Morehead, Robert C. and Ragozzine, Darin and Seader, Shawn E. and Tanenbaum, Peter G. and Torres, Guillermo and Twicken, Joseph D. (2012) Almost all of Kepler's multiple-planet candidates are planets. The Astrophysical Journal, 750 (2). pp. 112-126. ISSN 0004-637X

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We present a statistical analysis that demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of Kepler candidate multiple transiting systems (multis) indeed represent true, physically associated transiting planets. Binary stars provide the primary source of false positives among Kepler planet candidates, implying that false positives should be nearly randomly distributed among Kepler targets. In contrast, true transiting planets would appear clustered around a smaller number of Kepler targets if detectable planets tend to come in systems and/or if the orbital planes of planets encircling the same star are correlated. There are more than one hundred times as many Kepler planet candidates in multi-candidate systems as would be predicted from a random distribution of candidates, implying that the vast majority are true planets. Most of these multis are multiple-planet systems orbiting the Kepler target star, but there are likely cases where (1) the planetary system orbits a fainter star, and the planets are thus significantly larger than has been estimated, or (2) the planets orbit different stars within a binary/multiple star system. We use the low overall false-positive rate among Kepler multis, together with analysis of Kepler spacecraft and ground-based data, to validate the closely packed Kepler-33 planetary system, which orbits a star that has evolved somewhat off of the main sequence. Kepler-33 hosts five transiting planets, with periods ranging from 5.67 to 41 days.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Access to published version in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: No Faculty
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: No Faculty
Date Deposited: 13 Jun 2017 00:18
Last Modified: 27 Jun 2017 01:03
Uncontrolled Keywords: planetary systems; planets and satellites: detection; photometric;
Fields of Research (2008): 02 Physical Sciences > 0201 Astronomical and Space Sciences > 020110 Stellar Astronomy and Planetary Systems
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970102 Expanding Knowledge in the Physical Sciences
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