Masses, radii, and orbits of small Kepler planets: the transition from gaseous to rocky planets

Marcy, Geoffrey W. and Isaacson, Howard and Howard, Andrew W. and Rowe, Jason F. and Jenkins, Jon M. and Bryson, Stephen T. and Latham, David W. and Howell, Steve B. and Gautier, Thomas N. and Batalha, Natalie M. and Rogers, Leslie and Ciardi, David and Fischer, Debra A. and Gilliland, Ronald L. and Kjeldsen, Hans and Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen and Huber, Daniel and Chaplin, William J. and Basu, Sarbani and Buchhave, Lars A. and Quinn, Samuel N. and Borucki, William J. and Koch, David G. and Hunter, Roger and Caldwell, Douglas A. and Van Cleve, Jeffrey and Kolbl, Rea and Weiss, Lauren M. and Petigura, Erik and Seager, Sara and Morton, Timothy and Johnson, John Asher and Ballard, Sarah and Burke, Chris and Cochran, William D. and Endl, Michael and MacQueen, Phillip and Everett, Mark E. and Lissauer, Jack J. and Ford, Eric B. and Torres, Guillermo and Fressin, Francois and Brown, Timothy M. and Steffen, Jason H. and Charbonneau, David and Basri, Gibor S. and Sasselov, Dimitar D. and Winn, Joshua and Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto and Christiansen, Jessie and Adams, Elisabeth and Henze, Christopher and Dupree, Andrea and Fabrycky, Daniel C. and Fortney, Jonathan J. and Tarter, Jill and Holman, Matthew J. and Tenenbaum, Peter and Shporer, Avi and Lucas, Philip W. and Welsh, William F. and Orosz, Jerome A. and Bedding, T. R. and Campante, T. L. and Davies, G. R. and Elsworth, Y. and Handberg, R. and Hekker, S. and Karoff, C. and Kawaler, S. D. and Lund, M. N. and Lundkvist, M. and Metcalfe, T. S. and Miglio, A. and Aguirre, V. Silva and Stello, D. and White, T. R. and Boss, Alan and DeVore, Edna and Gould, Alan and Prsa, Andrej and Agol, Eric and Barclay, Thomas and Coughlin, Jeff and Brugamyer, Erik and Mullally, Fergal and Quintana, Elisa V. and Still, Martin and Thompson, Susan E. and Morrison, David and Twicken, Joseph D. and Desert, Jean Michel and Carter, Josh and Crepp, Justin R. and Hebrard, Guillaume and Santerne, Alexandre and Moutou, Claire and Sobeck, Charlie and Hudgins, Douglas and Haas, Michael R. and Robertson, Paul and Lillo-Box, Jorge and Barrado, David (2014) Masses, radii, and orbits of small Kepler planets: the transition from gaseous to rocky planets. Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, 210 (2). pp. 20-89. ISSN 0067-0049

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We report on the masses, sizes, and orbits of the planets orbiting 22 Kepler stars. There are 49 planet candidates around these stars, including 42 detected through transits and 7 revealed by precise Doppler measurements of the host stars. Based on an analysis of the Kepler brightness measurements, along with high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, Doppler spectroscopy, and (for 11 stars) asteroseismology, we establish low false-positive probabilities (FPPs) for all of the transiting planets (41 of 42 have an FPP under 1%), and we constrain their sizes and masses. Most of the transiting planets are smaller than three times the size of Earth. For 16 planets, the Doppler signal was securely detected, providing a direct measurement of the planet's mass. For the other 26 planets we provide either marginal mass measurements or upper limits to their masses and densities; in many cases we can rule out a rocky composition. We identify six planets with densities above 5 g cm-3, suggesting a mostly rocky interior for them. Indeed, the only planets that are compatible with a purely rocky composition are smaller than 2 R ⊕. Larger planets evidently contain a larger fraction of low-density material (H, He, and H2O).

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Access to published version in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: No Faculty
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: No Faculty
Date Deposited: 22 Jun 2017 23:52
Last Modified: 27 Jun 2017 04:49
Uncontrolled Keywords: planetary systems; planets and satellites: detection; stars; photometry; radial velocities
Fields of Research (2008): 02 Physical Sciences > 0201 Astronomical and Space Sciences > 020110 Stellar Astronomy and Planetary Systems
02 Physical Sciences > 0201 Astronomical and Space Sciences > 020102 Astronomical and Space Instrumentation
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970102 Expanding Knowledge in the Physical Sciences
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