Synthesis of an intrinsically flame retardant bio-based benzoxazine resin

Yan, Hongquiang and Sun, Chuang and Fang, Zhengping and Liu, Xiaoqing and Zhu, Jin and Wang, Hao (2016) Synthesis of an intrinsically flame retardant bio-based benzoxazine resin. Polymer, 97. pp. 418-427. ISSN 0032-3861


An intrinsically flame retardant bio-based benzoxazine (diphenolic acid pentaerythritol caged phosphate
benzoxazine, DPA-PEPA-Boz) monomer was synthesized from bio-based diphenolic acid (DPA) using a
four-step process. The monomer of DPA-PEPA-Boz was characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The
curing behavior of DPA-PEPA-boz was studied and compared with those of DPA based benzoxazine (DPABoz)
and DPA ester derivative (MDP) based benzoxazine (MDP-Boz) without PEPA by means of nonisothermal
differential scanning calorimetry. The results indicated that DPA-PEPA-Boz system showed
a two-stage curing, assigned to the exothermic opening reactions of oxazine rings and PeOeC ring in
PEPA respectively, while the DPA-Boz and MDP-Boz showed a one-stage curing. In addition, the effect of
the introduction of PEPA on thermal and inflammable properties of the resin was evaluated. The residual
char of the cured DPA-PEPA-Boz (P-DPA-PEPA-Boz) after 400 �C was much higher than those of cured
DPA-Boz (P-DPA-Boz) and cured MDP-Boz (P-MDP-Boz) under nitrogen and air atmospheres. Meanwhile,
total heat release (THR), peak heat release rate (PHRR) and heat release capacity (HRC) of P-DPA-PEPABoz
were about half of those of P-DPA-Boz and P-MDP-Boz. P-DPA-PEPA-Boz had a limiting oxygen index
(LOI) of 33.5% and achieved V0 rating in UL94 test. P-DPA-PEPA-Boz behaved as a very good intrinsic
thermal and flame retardant bio-based benoxazine resin.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Permanent restricted access to Published version, in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Current - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering
Date Deposited: 08 Mar 2017 03:15
Last Modified: 08 Mar 2017 03:15
Uncontrolled Keywords: diphenolic acid, bio-based polymer, benzoxazine, intrinsically flame retardant, synthesis
Fields of Research : 09 Engineering > 0905 Civil Engineering > 090502 Construction Engineering
09 Engineering > 0912 Materials Engineering > 091202 Composite and Hybrid Materials
Identification Number or DOI: 10.1016/j.polymer.2016.05.053

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