The effects of inspiratory muscle training in older adults

Mills, Dean E. and Johnson, Michael A. and Barnett, Yvonne A. and Smith, William H. T. and Sharpe, Graham R. (2015) The effects of inspiratory muscle training in older adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 47 (4). pp. 691-697. ISSN 0195-9131

Abstract

Purpose: Declining inspiratory muscle function and structure
and systemic low-level inflammation and oxidative stress may contribute to morbidity and mortality during normal ageing. Therefore, we examined the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in older adults on inspiratory muscle function and structure and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, and reexamined the reported positive effects of IMT on respiratory muscle strength, inspiratory
muscle endurance, spirometry, exercise performance, physical activity levels (PAL), and quality of life (QoL).

Methods: Thirty-four healthy older adults (68 ± 3 yr) with normal spirometry, respiratory muscle strength, and physical fitness were divided equally into a pressure-threshold IMT or sham-hypoxic placebo group. Before and after an 8-wk intervention, measurements were taken for dynamic inspiratory muscle function and inspiratory muscle endurance using a weighted plunger pressure-threshold loading device; diaphragm thickness by using B-mode ultrasonography; plasma cytokine concentrations by using immunoassays; DNA damage levels in peripheral
blood mononuclear cells by using comet assays; spirometry, maximal mouth pressures, and exercise performance by using a 6-min walk test; PAL by using a questionnaire and accelerometry; and QoL using a questionnaire.

Results: Compared with placebo, IMT increased maximal inspiratory pressure (+34% ± 43%, P = 0.008), diaphragm thickness at residual volume (+38% ± 39%, P = 0.03), and peak inspiratory flow (+35% ± 42%, P = 0.049) but did not change other spirometry measures, plasma cytokine concentrations, DNA damage levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, dynamic inspiratory muscle function, inspiratory muscle endurance, exercise performance,
PAL, or QoL.

Conclusion: These novel data indicate that in healthy older adults, IMT elicits some positive changes in inspiratory muscle function and structure but neither attenuates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress nor improves exercise performance, PAL, or QoL.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Files associated with this item cannot be displayed due to copyright restrictions.
Faculty / Department / School: Current - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Health and Wellbeing
Date Deposited: 25 May 2016 04:54
Last Modified: 01 Aug 2016 06:27
Uncontrolled Keywords: inspiratory muscle structure; inspiratory muscle function; cytokines; oxidative stress
Fields of Research : 11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1106 Human Movement and Sports Science > 110602 Exercise Physiology
Identification Number or DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000474
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/28765

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