Inspiratory muscle warm-up does not improve cycling time-trial performance

Johnson, M. A. and Gregson, I. R. and Mills, D. E. and Gonzalez, J. T. and Sharpe, G. R. (2014) Inspiratory muscle warm-up does not improve cycling time-trial performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 114 (9). pp. 1821-1830. ISSN 1439-6319


Purpose: This study examined the effects of an active cycling warm-up, with and without the addition of an inspiratory muscle warm-up (IMW), on 10-km cycling time-trial performance.

Methods: Ten cyclists (VO2 max = 65 ± 9 mL kg−1 min−1) performed a habituation 10-km cycling time-trial and three further time-trials preceded by either no warm-up (CONT), a cycling-specific warm-up (CYC) comprising three consecutive 5-min bouts at powers corresponding to 70, 80, and 90% of the gas exchange threshold, or a cycling-specific warm-up preceded by an IMW (CYC + IMW) comprising two sets of 30 inspiratory efforts against a pressure-threshold load of 40% maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP). The cycling warm-up was followed by 2-min rest before the start of the time-trial.

Results: Time-trial performance times during CYC (14.75 ± 0.79 min) and CYC + IMW (14.70 ± 0.75 min) were not different, although both were faster than CONT (14.99 ± 0.90 min) (P < 0.05). Throughout the time-trial, physiological (minute ventilation, breathing pattern, pulmonary gas exchange, heart rate, blood lactate concentration and pH) and perceptual (limb discomfort and dyspnoea) responses were not different between CYC and CYC + IMW. Baseline MIP during CONT and CYC was 151 ± 31 and 156 ± 39 cmH2O, respectively, and was unchanged following the time-trial. MIP increased by 8% after IMW (152 ± 27 vs. 164 ± 27 cmH2O, P < 0.05) and returned to baseline after the time-trial.

Conclusions: Improvements in 10-km cycling time-trial performance following an active cycling warm-up were not magnified by the addition of an IMW. Therefore, an appropriately designed active whole-body warm-up does adequately prepare the inspiratory muscles for cycling time-trials lasting approximately 15 min.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Files associated with this item cannot be displayed due to copyright restrictions.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Historic - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Health, Nursing and Midwifery
Date Deposited: 28 Jul 2016 02:54
Last Modified: 20 Feb 2017 01:09
Uncontrolled Keywords: respiratory muscle; pacing; prior exercise; perception
Fields of Research : 11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1106 Human Movement and Sports Science > 110602 Exercise Physiology
Identification Number or DOI: 10.1007/s00421-014-2914-x

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